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Nitric oxide (NO) is a freely diffusible, gaseous free radical and an important signaling molecule in animals. In plants, NO influences aspects of growth and development, and can affect plant responses to stress. In some cases, the effects of NO are the result of its interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). These interactions can be cytotoxic or(More)
The seeds of many plant species are dormant at maturity and dormancy loss is a prerequisite for germination. Numerous environmental and chemical treatments are known to lessen or remove seed dormancy, but the biochemical changes that occur during this change of state are poorly understood. Several lines of research have implicated nitric oxide (NO) as a(More)
The plant cell vacuole has multiple functions, including storage of proteins and maintenance of an acidic pH where proteases will have maximal activity. It has been assumed that these diverse functions occur in the same compartment. Here, we demonstrate that antibodies to two different tonoplast intrinsic proteins, alpha-TIP and TIP-Ma27, label vacuole(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. In mammals, NO is produced from Arg by the enzyme NO synthase. In plants, NO synthesis from Arg using an NO synthase-type enzyme and from nitrite using nitrate reductase has been demonstrated previously. The data presented in this report strongly support the hypothesis that plant(More)
Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were used to characterize the affects of nitric oxide (NO) on seed dormancy. Seeds of the C24 and Col-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis are almost completely dormant when freshly harvested, but dormancy was broken by stratification for 3 days at 4°C or by imbibition of seeds with(More)
Light microscopy was used to study the structure and function of vacuoles in living protoplasts of barley (Hordeum vul-gare cv Himalaya) aleurone. Light microscopy showed that aleurone protoplasts contain two distinct types of vacuole: the protein storage vacuole and a lysosome-like organelle, which we have called the secondary vacuole. Fluorescence(More)
Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle, and several parts of the seed can contribute to dormancy. Whole seeds, seeds lacking the testa, embryos, and isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used in experiments designed to identify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to learn(More)
The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue whose function is regulated by gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Aleurone cells lack functional chloroplasts, thus excluding photosynthesis as a source of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell death. Incubation of barley aleurone layers or protoplasts in GA initiated the cell death programme, but(More)
A bioassay is described which is dependent upon the fact that gibberellin induced α-amylase release from barley half-seeds is proportional to the logarithm of gibberellin concentration applied. This bioassay has been successfully applied to the estimation of gibberellin-like substances in plant extracts. The bioassay has the following advantages: 1) Release(More)
The steady-state levels of Ca2+ within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the transport of 45Ca2+ into isolated ER of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) aleurone layers were studied. The Ca2+-sensitive dye indo-1. Endoplasmic reticulum was isolated and purified from indo-1-loaded protoplasts, and the Ca2+ level in the ER was measured using the(More)