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This paper describes a new analysis of data from the 1968-72 National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). The population consisted of 1172 (792 noise-exposed and 380 "controls") predominately white male workers from a cross section of industries within the United States. The analysis focused on(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a method for estimating fibre size-specific exposures to airborne asbestos dust for use in epidemiological investigations of exposure-response relations. METHODS Archived membrane filter samples collected at a Charleston, South Carolina asbestos textile plant during 1964-8 were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to(More)
To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the reliability of the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), and the variation between and within microscopists, from urethral smears at a large London genitourinary medicine clinic. METHODS A senior microscopist (SM) preselected 60 Gram stained urethral smear slides, 20 negative (<5 polymorphs/hpf), 20 low grade NGU (5-20(More)
INTRODUCTION The use of human data to calibrate and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has the clear advantage of pertaining to the species of interest, namely humans. A challenge in using these data is their often sparse, heterogeneous nature, which may require special methods. Approaches for evaluating sources of variability and(More)
The objective of this study is to investigate the sources of variability and uncertainty in a previously developed human lung dosimetry model. That three-compartment model describes the retention and clearance kinetics of respirable particles in the gas-exchange region of the lungs. It was calibrated using exposure histories and lung dust burden data in(More)
This study describes the quantitative relationships between early pulmonary responses and the estimated lung-burden or cumulative exposure of respirable-quartz or coal mine dust. Data from a previous bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) study in coal miners (n = 20) and nonminers (n = 16) were used including cell counts of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and(More)
This study aimed to identify the effect of plyometric training (PT), when added to habitual training (HT) regimes, on swim start performance. After the completion of a baseline competitive swim start, 22 adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to either a PT (n = 11, age: 13.1 +/- 1.4 yr, mass: 50.6 +/- 12.3 kg, stature: 162.9 +/- 11.9 cm) or an HT group(More)
Methods for evaluating the hazards associated with noncancer responses with epidemiologic data are considered. The methods for noncancer risk assessment have largely been developed for experimental data, and are not always suitable for the more complex structure of epidemiologic data. In epidemiology, the measurement of the response and the exposure is(More)
This paper focuses on presenting a review and discussion of the major methodologic issues involved in using epidemiologic studies of occupational groups for assessing human cancer risks. Although animal studies have been most often used for quantitative risk assessment, it is generally recognized that well conducted epidemiologic studies would provide the(More)