Russell J Reiter

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Antioxidant enzymes form the first line of defense against free radicals in organisms. Their regulation depends mainly on the oxidant status of the cell, given that oxidants are their principal modulators. However, other factors have been reported to increase antioxidant enzyme activity and/or gene expression. During the last decade, the antioxidant(More)
Melatonin was discovered to be a direct free radical scavenger less than 10 years ago. Besides its ability to directly neutralize a number of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it stimulates several antioxidative enzymes which increase its efficiency as an antioxidant. In terms of direct free radical scavenging, melatonin interacts with(More)
Melatonin was recently reported to be an effective free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Melatonin is believed to scavenge the highly toxic hydroxyl radical, the peroxynitrite anion, and possibly the peroxyl radical. Also, secondarily, it reportedly scavenges the superoxide anion radical and it quenches singlet oxygen. Additionally, it stimulates mRNA(More)
The paper briefly reviews the data which shows that the circadian production and secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland can impart both daily, i.e., clock, and seasonal, i.e., calendar, information to the organism. The paper summarizes the 3 patterns of nocturnal melatonin production that have been described. Clearly, regardless of the pattern of(More)
Melatonin is a highly conserved molecule. Its presence can be traced back to ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. A primitive and primary function of melatonin is that it acts as a receptor-independent free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant. The receptor-dependent functions of melatonin were subsequently acquired during evolution. In the(More)
I. Introduction UNTIL 35 yr ago, most scientists did not take research on the pineal gland seriously. The decade beginning in 1956, however, provided several discoveries that laid the foundation for what has become a very active area of investigation. These important early observations included the findings that, 1), the physiological activity of the pineal(More)
Melatonin was found to be a potent free radical scavenger in 1993. Since then over 800 publications have directly or indirectly confirmed this observation. Melatonin scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite anion. Based on the analyses of(More)
Aerobic cells use oxygen for the production of 90-95% of the total amount of ATP that they use. This amounts to about 40 kg ATP/day in an adult human. The synthesis of ATP via the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the result of electron transport across the electron transport chain coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. Although ideally all the oxygen(More)
We investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and poor oocyte quality and whether the antioxidant melatonin improves oocyte quality. Follicular fluid was sampled at oocyte retrieval during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Intrafollicular concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in women with high rates of(More)