The k-SAT problem is to determine if a given k-CNF has a satisfying assignment. It is a celebrated open question as to whether it requires exponential time to solve k-SAT for k 3. Here exponentialâ€¦ (More)

Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show how to construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to constructâ€¦ (More)

For many proofs of knowledge it is important that only the verifier designated by the confirmer can obtain any conviction of the correctness of the proof. A good example of such a situation is forâ€¦ (More)

We show that the existence of one-way functions is necessary and sufficient for the existence of pseudo-random generators in the following sense. Let Æ’ be an easily computable function such that whenâ€¦ (More)

A propositional proof system can be viewed as a non-deterministic algorithm for the (co-NP complete) unsatisfiabilit y problem. Many such proof systems, such as resolution, are rdso used as the basisâ€¦ (More)

Russell Impagliazzo* Avi Wigdersont Department of Computer Science Institute of Computer Science University of California Hebrew University San Diego, CA 91097-0114 Jerusalem, Israel russell@csâ€¦ (More)

Consider a decision problem that cannot be 1 ? approximated by circuits of a given size in the sense that any such circuit fails to give the correct answer on at least a fraction of instances. Weâ€¦ (More)