Russell H. Knutsen

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Signaling by hormones and neurotransmitters that activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) maintains blood pressure within the normal range despite large changes in cardiac output that can occur within seconds. This implies that blood pressure regulation requires precise kinetic control of GPCR signaling. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed mice(More)
The observations that atherosclerosis often occurs in non-smokers without elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and that most atherosclerosis loci so far identified in mice do not affect systemic risk factors associated with atherosclerosis, suggest that as-yet-unidentified mechanisms must contribute to vascular disease. Arterial walls(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), known as Hurler syndrome in the severe form, is a lysosomal storage disease due to alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency. It results in fragmentation of elastin fibers in the aorta and heart valves via mechanisms that are unclear, but may result from the accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans heparan and dermatan sulfate.(More)
Glucocorticoid excess causes insulin resistance and hypertension. Hepatic expression of PPARalpha (Ppara) is required for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that afferent fibers of the vagus nerve interface with hepatic Ppara expression to disrupt blood pressure and glucose homeostasis in response to glucocorticoids. Selective(More)
Elastin is an essential component of vertebrate arteries that provides elasticity and stores energy during the cardiac cycle. Elastin production in the arterial wall begins midgestation but increases rapidly during the last third of human and mouse development, just as blood pressure and cardiac output increase sharply. The aim of this study is to(More)
Hypertension and diabetes are common side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) mediates these sequelae, mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/-), with (Ppara+/+) or without (Ppara-/-) PPAR-alpha, were treated chronically with dexamethasone. Ppara+/+, but(More)
Transgenic mice overexpressing the calcium binding protein, S100A4/Mts1, occasionally develop severe pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. To understand what underlies this propensity, we compared the pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and structural features of S100A4/Mts1 with control C57Bl/6 mice at baseline, following a 2-week exposure to chronic hypoxia,(More)
OBJECTIVE Even though elastin and fibrillin-1 are the major structural components of elastic fibers, mutations in elastin and fibrillin-1 lead to narrowing of large arteries in supravalvular aortic stenosis and dilation of the ascending aorta in Marfan syndrome, respectively. A genetic approach was therefore used here to distinguish the differential(More)
Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) is a small molecular weight component of the fibrillin-rich microfibril. Gene-targeted inactivation of MAGP-1 reveals a complex phenotype that includes increased body weight and size due to excess body fat, an altered wound healing response in bone and skin, and a bleeding diathesis. Elastic tissues rich in(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to mutations within the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase, and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. MPS VII causes aortic dilatation and elastin fragmentation, which is associated with upregulation of the elastases cathepsin S (CtsS) and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12). To test(More)