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Signaling by hormones and neurotransmitters that activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) maintains blood pressure within the normal range despite large changes in cardiac output that can occur within seconds. This implies that blood pressure regulation requires precise kinetic control of GPCR signaling. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed mice(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), known as Hurler syndrome in the severe form, is a lysosomal storage disease due to alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency. It results in fragmentation of elastin fibers in the aorta and heart valves via mechanisms that are unclear, but may result from the accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans heparan and dermatan sulfate.(More)
Glucocorticoid excess causes insulin resistance and hypertension. Hepatic expression of PPARalpha (Ppara) is required for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that afferent fibers of the vagus nerve interface with hepatic Ppara expression to disrupt blood pressure and glucose homeostasis in response to glucocorticoids. Selective(More)
The observations that atherosclerosis often occurs in non-smokers without elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and that most atherosclerosis loci so far identified in mice do not affect systemic risk factors associated with atherosclerosis, suggest that as-yet-unidentified mechanisms must contribute to vascular disease. Arterial walls(More)
Elastin is an essential component of vertebrate arteries that provides elasticity and stores energy during the cardiac cycle. Elastin production in the arterial wall begins midgestation but increases rapidly during the last third of human and mouse development, just as blood pressure and cardiac output increase sharply. The aim of this study is to(More)
Supravalvular aortic stenosis is an autosomal-dominant disease of elastin (Eln) insufficiency caused by loss-of-function mutations or gene deletion. Recently, we have modeled this disease in mice (Eln+/-) and found that Eln haploinsufficiency results in unexpected changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and arterial wall structure. Eln+/- animals were found(More)
Transgenic mice overexpressing the calcium binding protein, S100A4/Mts1, occasionally develop severe pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. To understand what underlies this propensity, we compared the pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and structural features of S100A4/Mts1 with control C57Bl/6 mice at baseline, following a 2-week exposure to chronic hypoxia,(More)
Hypertension and diabetes are common side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) mediates these sequelae, mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/-), with (Ppara+/+) or without (Ppara-/-) PPAR-alpha, were treated chronically with dexamethasone. Ppara+/+, but(More)
BACKGROUND KATP channels, assembled from pore-forming (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and regulatory (SUR1 or SUR2) subunits, link metabolism to excitability. Loss of Kir6.2 results in hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas loss of Kir6.1 causes Prinzmetal angina-like symptoms in mice. Conversely, overactivity of Kir6.2 induces neonatal diabetes in mice and humans,(More)
Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is associated with decreased elastin and altered arterial mechanics. Mice with a single deletion in the elastin gene (ELN(+/-)) are models for SVAS. Previous studies have shown that elastin haploinsufficiency in these mice causes hypertension, decreased arterial compliance, and changes in arterial wall structure. Despite(More)