Learn More
Depressive personality and depressive illness are examined from an evolutionary adaptationist standpoint. It is postulated that the depressive state evolved in relation to social competition, as an unconscious, involuntary losing strategy, enabling the individual to accept defeat in ritual agonistic encounters and to accommodate to what would otherwise be(More)
Educators in psychiatry face an important challenge in deciding what quantitative skills to teach and where in the educational agenda to teach them. One strategy is to focus the quantitative training of psychiatrists on techniques they need to be effective consumers of their literature. The authors catalogued the statistical methods described in 15 major(More)
Using the frameworks of attachment and social hierarchy theories, strategies seen in depression and in normal life are better understood. A hierarchial encounter elicits the "Involuntary Subordinate Strategy" ("ISS") in the loser, which terminates the "ISS" and brings the encounter to an end. These are psychophysiological mechanisms deeply rooted in our(More)
Characteristics of mania describe individuals who are human counterparts of "alpha" members of nonhuman species. Depressive characteristics described low rank or "omega" persons. These similarities provided initial support for a model of manic-depressive disorder that hypothesizes these bipolar states to be (1) basically identical to an organismic state(More)
BACKGROUND No satisfactory basis in normal function characterizes major depression and its co-morbid disorders. Yet these may represent maladaptive expression of adaptive communicational states exhibited normally in many species. METHODS We examined the signal value of depressive and anxious mood states, fatigue syndrome and somatoform disorders and found(More)
The outcome in 115 consecutive patients with mild self-poisoning seen by junior medical staff and discharged from the accident department was compared with that of 98 similar patients admitted to the medical wards. Psychiatrists saw only four patients in the accident department and 25 admissions. In making their assessments the junior medical staff(More)
The medical specialty of psychiatry should possess a basic science in which pathologies are considered deviations from normal brain physiology. Historically, psychoanalytic pathogenesis was considered separately from brain physiology. It was not scientific because observations could not be refuted. Countering this, Eli Robins's legacy stemmed partly from(More)