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Real-time PCR is being used increasingly as the method of choice for mRNA quantification, allowing rapid analysis of gene expression from low quantities of starting template. Despite a wide range of approaches, the same principles underlie all data analysis, with standard approaches broadly classified as either absolute or relative. In this study we use a(More)
In the mammalian retina, a small subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive, express the opsin-like protein melanopsin, and project to brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. We report that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs(More)
In the mammalian retina, besides the conventional rod-cone system, a melanopsin-associated photoreceptive system exists that conveys photic information for accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-entrainment. On ablation of the melanopsin gene, retinal ganglion cells that normally express melanopsin are no longer(More)
This work demonstrates that transgenic mice lacking both rod and cone photoreceptors (rd/rd cl) retain a pupillary light reflex (PLR) that does not rely on local iris photoreceptors. These data, combined with previous reports that rodless and coneless mice show circadian and pineal responses to light, suggest that multiple non-image-forming light responses(More)
We report microspectrophotometric (MSP) data for the visual pigments and oil droplets of 17 species of Caribbean anoline lizard known to live in differing photic habitats and having distinctly different dewlap colors. The outgroup Polychrus marmoratus was also examined to gain insight into the ancestral condition. Except for Anolis carolinensis, which is(More)
The pacemaker role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in a mammalian circadian system was tested by neural transplantation by using a mutant strain of hamster that shows a short circadian period. Small neural grafts from the suprachiasmatic region restored circadian rhythms to arrhythmic animals whose own nucleus had been ablated. The restored rhythms always(More)
We have examined the effects of light on circadian locomotor rhythms in retinally degenerate mice (C57BL/6J mice homozygous for the rd allele: rd/rd). The sensitivity of circadian photoreception in these mice was determined by varying the irradiance of a 15 min light pulse (515 nm) given at circadian time 16 and meauring the magnitude of the phase shift of(More)
Circadian rhythms of mammals are entrained by light to follow the daily solar cycle (photoentrainment). To determine whether retinal rods and cones are required for this response, the effects of light on the regulation of circadian wheel-running behavior were examined in mice lacking these photoreceptors. Mice without cones (cl) or without both rods and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy is controversial, but it is thought that cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibition is of pivotal importance. We compared small intestinal function and morphology in untreated wild-type, COX-1- and COX-2-deficient mice and the effect of indomethacin, selective COX-1(More)
With the aid of specific antisera to the retinal proteins S-antigen and alpha-transducin and to the rhodopsin apoprotein opsin, we have labeled various cell populations in the pineal organ, parapineal organ, habenular nucleus, and subcommissural organ in two teleost species: the rainbow trout and the European minnow. Although these proteins are associated(More)