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This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events(More)
D'-Ala-2 met-5-enkephalinamide application to the cerebral ganglia of Leucophaea maderae results in a decrease in locomotor activity. The opiate antagonist, naloxone, can block this effect as well as the depressant effect of morphine on locomotor activity. D-Ala-2,leu-5-enkephalinamide and dynorphin enhance locomotor activity following their topical(More)
—With high capacity air interfaces and large numbers of small cells, backhaul – the wired connectivity to base stations – is increasingly becoming the cost driver in cellular wireless networks. One reason for the high cost of backhaul is that capacity is often purchased on leased lines with guaranteed rates provisioned to peak loads. In this paper, we(More)
Next generation wireless networks (5G) have to cope with significant traffic increase due to high quality video transmission and cloud-based applications. Such requirements create the need for a revolutionary change in architecture rather than a series of local and incremental technology updates. A dense heterogeneous deployment of small cells such as(More)
—Millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have attracted considerable attention for fifth generation (5G) cellular communication as they offer orders of magnitude greater bandwidth than current cellular systems. However, the MAC layer may need to be significantly redesigned to support the highly directional transmissions, very low(More)
—In cellular wireless networks, user association refers to the problem of assigning mobile users to base station cells – a critical, but challenging, problem in many emerging small cell and heterogeneous networks. This paper considers a general class of utility maximization problems for joint optimization of mobile user associations and bandwidth and power(More)
—The IMT 2020 requirements of 20 Gbps peak data rate and 1 millisecond latency present significant engineering challenges for the design of 5G cellular systems. Use of the millimeter wave (mmWave) bands above 10 GHz — where vast quantities of spectrum are available — is a promising 5G candidate that may be able to rise to the occasion. However, while the(More)
The millimeter wave (mmWave) bands are likely to play a significant role in next generation cellular systems due to the possibility of very high throughput thanks to the availability of massive bandwidth and high-dimensional antennas. Especially in Non-Line-of-Sight conditions, significant variations in the received RF power can occur as a result of the(More)
The growing demand for ubiquitous mobile data services along with the scarcity of spectrum in the sub-6 GHz bands has given rise to the recent interest in developing wireless systems that can exploit the large amount of spectrum available in the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency range. Due to its potential for multi-gigabit and ultra-low latency links,(More)