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This study assessed the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on cognitive functioning, using an intravenous (IV) rodent model that closely mimics the pharmacokinetics seen in humans after smoking or IV injection and that avoids maternal stress and undernutrition. Cocaine-exposed males were significantly impaired on a 3-choice, but not 2-choice, olfactory(More)
Over the past two decades the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to treat behavioral disorders in children has grown rapidly, despite little evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of these drugs for use in children. Utilizing a rat model, this study investigated whether post-weaning exposure to a prototype SSRI, fluoxetine (FLX),(More)
Long-Evans rats exposed chronically to lead (Pb) acetate (0, 75, or 300 ppm) were tested as adults on an automated, three-choice visual discrimination task as part of a larger study designed to elucidate the cognitive effects of developmental Pb exposure. Median adult BPb levels for the groups were <5, 20, and 36 microgram/dl. The pattern of results(More)
This study examined the effect of the novel psychostimulant modafinil (Provigil) on a variety of cognitive and behavioral measures including associative learning, sustained attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time. Middle-aged female rats (18-20 months old) were administered oral doses of modafinil (0, 8, 32, and 64 mg/kg) and tested in a 3-choice(More)
Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant used for the treatment of sleep and arousal-related disorders, and has been considered a pharmacotherapy for cocaine and amphetamine dependence; however, modafinil's mechanism of action is largely unclear. The present study investigated modafinil using drug discrimination and slice superfusion techniques. Rats were(More)
Rats exposed to cocaine prenatally were administered a series of 3-choice visual attention tasks, with the most pronounced deficits seen in a task in which the onset time, location, and duration of a visual cue varied unpredictably between trials. The cocaine-exposed rats were less accurate than controls but did not differ in the rate of premature responses(More)
Isotretinoin (ISO, 13-cis-retinoic acid) is commonly prescribed as Accutane for the treatment of acne. ISO is a known teratogen and the physical side effects of the drug have been well documented. However, possible psychological risks associated with the drug have yet to be determined. Retinoid receptors are abundant in the striatum and hippocampus, brain(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that early lead (Pb) exposure causes lasting attentional dysfunction. Long-Evans dams were fed Pb-adulterated water during gestation and/or lactation; the offspring were tested as adults. The results of a visual discrimination task revealed no Pb effects on learning rate or information-processing speed. However,(More)
Long-Evans dams were exposed to Pb acetate in the drinking water during both gestation and lactation, or lactation only. This report presents the results of an automated, olfactory, serial reversal task administered to the adult offspring. Although overall learning rate was not significantly affected by Pb exposure, analyses of specific phases of the(More)
Modafinil is a psychostimulant approved for treating excessive sleepiness in adults; off-label uses (e.g., treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, ADHD and age-related dementias) are currently being explored. The effects and mechanisms of action of modafinil have not been fully established. In the present study, the effects of modafinil were(More)
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