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To understand the cellular and in vivo functions of specific K(+) channels in glia, we have studied mice with a null mutation in the weakly inwardly rectifying K(+) channel subunit Kir4.1. Kir4.1-/- mice display marked motor impairment, and the cellular basis is hypomyelination in the spinal cord, accompanied by severe spongiform vacuolation, axonal(More)
Shiverer is an important model of central nervous system dysmyelination characterized by a deletion in the gene encoding myelin basic protein with relevance to human dysmyelinating and demyelinating diseases. Perfusion fixed brains from shiverer mutant (C3Fe.SWV Mbp(shi)/Mbp(shi)n = 6) and background control (C3HeB.FeJ, n = 6) mice were compared using(More)
Studies on postmortem brains from Parkinson's patients reveal elevated iron in the substantia nigra (SN). Selective cell death in this brain region is associated with oxidative stress, which may be exacerbated by the presence of excess iron. Whether iron plays a causative role in cell death, however, is controversial. Here, we explore the effects of iron(More)
Within biological systems water molecules undergo continuous stochastic Brownian motion. The rate of this diffusion can give clues to the structure of underlying tissues. In some tissues the rate is anisotropic – faster in some directions than others. Diffusion-rate images are second-order tensor fields and can be calculated from diffusion-weighted magnetic(More)
Pathology of fixed spinal cords from transgenic mice with a myelin basic protein (MBP) specific T cell receptor was investigated. These mice spontaneously acquire the demyelinating disease experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Several complementary imaging modalities, all on the same tissues, were used to visualize lesions; these included(More)
The myelin basic protein (MBP) gene encodes two families of proteins, the classic MBP constituents of myelin and the golli-MBPs, the function of which is less well understood. In this study, targeted ablation of the golli-MBPs, but not the classic MBPs, resulted in a distinct phenotype unlike that of knock-outs (KOs) of the classic MBPs or other myelin(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging method that provides three-dimensional (3-D) images of the internal structure of opaque objects, such as humans and mice. In optimal situations, spatial resolution can approach the micron level. Arbitrarily oriented single-slice images can be obtained in seconds, with full 3-D volume images taking(More)
MEMRI offers the exciting possibility of tracing neuronal circuits in living animals by MRI. Here we use the power of mouse genetics and the simplicity of the visual system to test rigorously the parameters affecting Mn2+ uptake, transport and trans-synaptic tracing. By measuring electrical response to light before and after injection of Mn2+ into the eye,(More)
Brain atrophy measured by MRI is an important correlate with clinical disability and disease duration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, neuropathologic mechanisms which lead to this grey matter atrophy remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether brain atrophy occurs in the mouse model, experimental autoimmune(More)
Small focal injections of manganese ion (Mn(2+)) deep within the mouse central nervous system combined with in vivo high-resolution MRI delineate neuronal tracts originating from the site of injection. Previous work has shown that Mn(2+) can be taken up through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, transported along axons, and across synapses. Moreover, Mn(2+) is(More)