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BACKGROUND Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore-processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. METHODS Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco-Oakland(More)
Respiratory infections, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), contribute to asthma pathobiology. To date, the mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of asthmatics to airway Mp infection remain unclear. Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a recently described large airway epithelial cell-derived molecule that was(More)
RATIONALE Cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an effect that is, in part, due to intense oxidant stress. Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a critical regulator of lung homeostasis, which is defective in smokers and in patients with COPD, suggesting a role in disease pathogenesis. (More)
Statins are potent, cholesterol-lowering agents with newly appreciated, broad anti-inflammatory properties, largely based upon their ability to block the prenylation of Rho GTPases, including RhoA. Because phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a pivotal regulator of inflammation, which is inhibited by RhoA, we sought to determine whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To use human cartilage samples and a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a constituent of cartilage and to evaluate whether there is a relationship between EC-SOD deficiency and OA. METHODS Samples of human cartilage were obtained from femoral heads at the time of joint(More)
BACKGROUND Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are a significant cause of mortality of COPD patients, and pose a huge burden on healthcare. One of the major causes of AECOPD is airway bacterial (e.g. nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) infection. However, the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections during AECOPD(More)
Tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contains a high concentration of oxidants. The lung has a high concentration of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes; however, COPD patients show evidence of increased oxidative stress suggesting that endogenous antioxidants may be insufficient to prevent(More)
Restenosis is a pathological condition involving intimal hyperplasia and negative arterial remodeling. Gene therapy vectors have shown modest therapeutic effects, but the level of infectivity has been relatively poor. In the present study we have designed a modified lentiviral vector (LV) pseudotyped with a strain of Hantavirus (HTNV) to improve the(More)
Welding fume contains manganese (Mn) which is known to be bio-available to and neurotoxic for the central nervous system. Although an essential metal, Mn overexposure may cause manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome. The present welder study sought to improve the clinical portrait of manganism and to determine dose-effect relationships. The welders were(More)
Oxidative stress may play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. There is heterogeneity in the literature with regard to the impact of antioxidant therapy on COPD exacerbation frequency. Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in COPD were identified in unrestricted searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical(More)