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BACKGROUND Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore-processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. METHODS Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco-Oakland(More)
RATIONALE Cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an effect that is, in part, due to intense oxidant stress. Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a critical regulator of lung homeostasis, which is defective in smokers and in patients with COPD, suggesting a role in disease pathogenesis. (More)
Respiratory infections, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), contribute to asthma pathobiology. To date, the mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of asthmatics to airway Mp infection remain unclear. Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a recently described large airway epithelial cell-derived molecule that was(More)
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been shown to be an important factor in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, human studies of TNF polymorphisms in COPD have been equivocal. Six TNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (-1031C/T, -863C/A, -857C/T, -237G/A, -308G/A and +487G/A) and their haplotypes were investigated in 423(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical mediators of mucosal immunity, and group 1 ILCs (ILC1 cells) and group 3 ILCs (ILC3 cells) have been shown to be functionally plastic. Here we found that group 2 ILCs (ILC2 cells) also exhibited phenotypic plasticity in response to infectious or noxious agents, characterized by substantially lower expression of the(More)
Statins are potent, cholesterol-lowering agents with newly appreciated, broad anti-inflammatory properties, largely based upon their ability to block the prenylation of Rho GTPases, including RhoA. Because phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a pivotal regulator of inflammation, which is inhibited by RhoA, we sought to determine whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To use human cartilage samples and a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a constituent of cartilage and to evaluate whether there is a relationship between EC-SOD deficiency and OA. METHODS Samples of human cartilage were obtained from femoral heads at the time of joint(More)
UNLABELLED The purposes of this study were: to describe chest CT findings in normal non-smoking controls and cigarette smokers with and without COPD; to compare the prevalence of CT abnormalities with severity of COPD; and to evaluate concordance between visual and quantitative chest CT (QCT) scoring. METHODS Volumetric inspiratory and expiratory CT scans(More)
Welding fume contains manganese (Mn) which is known to be bio-available to and neurotoxic for the central nervous system. Although an essential metal, Mn overexposure may cause manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome. The present welder study sought to improve the clinical portrait of manganism and to determine dose-effect relationships. The welders were(More)
The current clinical classification of smoking-related lung disease fails to take into account the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With an increased understanding of pathophysiologic variation, COPD now clearly represents a spectrum of overlapping diseases with important extrapulmonary consequences. A "phenotype" describes the(More)