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We present a robust sampling methodology to estimate population size using line transect and capture-recapture procedures for aerial surveys. Aerial surveys usually underestimate population density due to animals being missed. A combination of capture-recapture and line transect sampling methods with multiple observers allows violation of the assumption(More)
From a literature review of five wildlife ecology journals since 1937, we document how using indices to monitor ungulate body condition is common practice, with the kidney fat index (KFI = weight of fat around the kidneys/weight of kidneys without fat × 100) as the favoured tool (82% of studies). In this context, we highlight the problems of using indices(More)
Studies of wild vertebrates have provided evidence of substantial differences in lifetime reproduction among individuals and the sequences of life history 'states' during life (breeding, nonbreeding, etc.). Such differences may reflect 'fixed' differences in fitness components among individuals determined before, or at the onset of reproductive life. Many(More)
In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are <1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction(More)
Wileyto et al. [E.P. Wileyto, W.J. Ewens, M.A. Mullen, Markov-recapture population estimates: a tool for improving interpretation of trapping experiments, Ecology 75 (1994) 1109] propose a four-state discrete time Markov process, which describes the structure of a marking-capture experiment as a method of population estimation. They propose this method(More)
The estimation of population density animal population parameters, such as capture probability, population size, or population density, is an important issue in many ecological applications. Capture–recapture data may be considered as repeated observations that are often correlated over time. If these correlations are not taken into account then parameter(More)
The combined mark-recapture and line transect sampling methodology proposed by Alpizar-Jara and Pollock [Journal of Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 3(4), 311–327, 1996; In Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods Symposium. G.W. Garner, S.C. Amstrup, J.L. Laake, B.F.J. Manly, L.L. McDonald, and D.C. Robertson (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam,(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the positive effects of road verges on the abundance of small mammals. However, most of these studies occurred in intensively grazed or cultivated areas, where verges were the last remnants of suitable habitats, which could mask the true effects of roads on population traits. We analysed the effects of roads on small mammal(More)
Modeling individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities has been one of the most challenging tasks in capture-recapture studies. Heterogeneity in capture probabilities can be modeled as a function of individual covariates, but correlation structure among capture occasions should be taking into account. A proposed generalized estimating equations (GEE)(More)
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