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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect-motivation-arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates. METHOD A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18-44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that(More)
OBJECTIVE Optimal diagnostic thresholds were determined for DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the psychometric properties were compared to alternative definitions. METHOD Structured diagnostic interviews of multiple informants for 380 clinic-referred youths aged 4-17 years were conducted. In addition, standardized clinicians' validation(More)
The psychiatric outcome is reported for a large sample of hyperactive children (N = 123), meeting research diagnostic criteria, and normal control children (N = 66) followed prospectively over an 8-year period into adolescence. Over 80% of the hyperactives were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 60% had either oppositional defiant disorder(More)
Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the(More)
An important question in the attempt to generalize laboratory findings on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children to clinical issues concerning their assessment, diagnosis, outcome, and treatment response is the ecological validity of the commonly used tasks and analogue behavioral observation procedures. This paper examines the concept of(More)
  • R A Barkley
  • 1997
This article describes the current clinical view of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and suggests a model of prefrontal lobe executive functions that explains better than current theories the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD. The model shows how behavioral inhibition is related to and necessary for the proficient(More)
The frequency and severity of 17 side effects presumably associated with stimulant medication were assessed during a rigorous, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover evaluation of methylphenidate, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg twice a day, in 83 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Side effects were rated by parents and teachers at the end of(More)
Clinic-referred teens (ages 12-19) with ADHD and ODD (N = 101) were compared to community control (CC) teens, equated for age and sex, (N = 39) on a variety of psychological tasks assessing executive functioning (EF), temporal reward discounting, and time estimation and reproduction. A factor analysis reduced the EF measures to three dimensions,(More)