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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect-motivation-arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates. METHOD A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18-44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that(More)
  • R A Barkley
  • 1997
This article describes the current clinical view of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and suggests a model of prefrontal lobe executive functions that explains better than current theories the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD. The model shows how behavioral inhibition is related to and necessary for the proficient(More)
Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the motor vehicle driving knowledge, skills, and negative driving outcomes of older teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). LOCATION A university medical center clinic for adult ADHD. SUBJECTS A total of 25 young adults with ADHD and 23 young adults without ADHD 17 to 30 years old drawn from the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about predictors of persistence of childhood cases into adulthood. METHODS A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD, childhood risk factors, and a screen for adult ADHD were included in a sample of 3197 18-44 year old respondents in the(More)
Young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 105) were compared with a control group (N = 64) on 14 measures of executive function and olfactory identification using a 2 (group) X 2 (sex) design. The ADHD group performed significantly worse on 11 measures. No Group X Sex interaction was found on any measures. No differences were(More)
We review 22 neuropsychological studies of frontal lobe functions in children with attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity (ADD/+H, ADD/-H). Some measures presumed to assess frontal lobe dysfunctions were not reliably sensitive to the deficits occurring in either form of ADD. Tests of response inhibition more reliably distinguished ADD/+H(More)
Clinic-referred teens (ages 12-19) with ADHD and ODD (N = 101) were compared to community control (CC) teens, equated for age and sex, (N = 39) on a variety of psychological tasks assessing executive functioning (EF), temporal reward discounting, and time estimation and reproduction. A factor analysis reduced the EF measures to three dimensions,(More)
OBJECTIVE To critique the age-of-onset criterion (AOC) for the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD The specific AOC of 7 years for symptoms producing impairment as part of the diagnostic criteria is examined from historical, empirical, conceptual, and pragmatic perspectives. RESULTS No support could be found for the(More)