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Resting-state data sets contain coherent fluctuations unrelated to neural processes originating from residual motion artefacts, respiration and cardiac action. Such confounding effects may introduce correlations and cause an overestimation of functional connectivity strengths. In this study we applied several multidimensional linear regression approaches to(More)
Although motor imagery is widely used for motor learning in rehabilitation and sports training, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Based on fMRI data sets acquired with very high temporal resolution (300 ms) under motor execution and imagery conditions, we utilized Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to determine effective connectivity(More)
Previous studies suggest organizing effects of sex hormones on brain structure during early life and puberty, yet little is known about the adult period. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on cortical sex differences in grey matter volume (GM) of the adult human brain. To assess sexual(More)
Recent mathematical models suggest restored serotonergic burst-firing to underlie the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), resulting from down-regulated serotonin transporters (SERT) in terminal regions. This mechanism possibly depends on the interregional balance between SERTs in the raphe nuclei and in terminal regions(More)
Social anxiety disorder patients suffer from excessive anxious responses in social interaction leading to avoidance behavior and social impairment. Although the amygdala has a central role in perception and processing of threatening cues, little is known about the involved networks and corresponding dysfunctions in social anxiety. Therefore, this study aims(More)
Although qualitative reports about somatotopic representation of fingers in the human motor cortex exist, up to now no study could provide clear statistical evidence. The goal of the present study was to reinvestigate finger motor somatotopy by means of a thorough investigation of standardized movements of the index and little finger of the right hand.(More)
BACKGROUND Escitalopram is a dual serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. It is the S-enantiomer of citalopram, and is responsible for the serotonin reuptake activity, and thus for its pharmacological effects. Previous studies pointed out that clinically efficacious doses of other SSRIs produce an(More)
Area-specific and stimulation-dependent changes of human brain activation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are an important issue for improved understanding of treatment mechanisms, given the frequent prescription of these drugs in depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to investigate differences in(More)
There is an increasing interest in the underlying mechanisms of the antidepressant and anxiolytic treatment effect associated with changes in serotonergic neurotransmission after treatment with selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in humans. The 5-HT(1A) receptor is known to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of affective(More)
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by over-reactivity of fear-related circuits in social or performance situations and associated with marked social impairment. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM), a method to evaluate effective connectivity, to test our hypothesis that SAD patients would exhibit dysfunctions in the amygdala-prefrontal emotion(More)