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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently(More)
The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include(More)
CONTEXT Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in female sex workers (FSWs) and may enhance susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). OBJECTIVE To examine regular antibiotic prophylaxis in FSWs as a strategy for reducing the incidence of bacterial STIs and HIV-1. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of(More)
HIV-1-specific IgA has been described in the genital tract and plasma of HIV-1 highly exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals, and IgA from these sites has been shown to neutralize HIV-1. This study examines the ability of IgA isolated from HEPS individuals to inhibit transcytosis across a tight epithelial cell layer. A Transwell system was(More)
HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another(More)
In contrast to other viral infections such as CMV, circulating frequencies of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood are quantitatively diminished in the majority of HIV-1-infected individuals. One mechanism for this quantitative defect is preferential infection of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells, although <10% of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells are(More)
Canavan disease, an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy, is caused by deficiency of aspartoacylase and accumulation of N-acetylaspartic acid in brain. We have cloned the human aspartoacylase (ASP) cDNA spanning 1,435 basepairs, and show that the isolated cDNA expresses aspartoacylase activity in bacteria. Furthermore, an A to C base change, at nucleotide(More)