Rupert J. Quinnell

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To elucidate the local tissue cytokine response of dogs infected with Leishmania chagasi, cytokine mRNA levels were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 27 naturally infected dogs from Brazil and were compared with those from 5 uninfected control animals. Interferon-gamma mRNA accumulation was enhanced in infected dogs and was positively correlated with(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of(More)
Human chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme with suggested anti-fungal properties. Previous studies have suggested that chitotriosidase may also protect individuals against filarial nematode infections and malaria. A mutant allele, which renders chitotriosidase unstable and enzymatically inactive, is found at a frequency of >20% in Caucasians and(More)
Most theoretical models of age-related mate choice predict that females should prefer older males because they have proven survival ability. An alternative view is that older males represent inferior mates because of negative genetic correlations between early and late fitness components, or because older males have traded off longevity against other(More)
Current zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) control programs in Brazil include the culling of Leishmania infantum-infected reservoir dogs, a strategy that has failed to prevent a rise of canine and human ZVL cases over the past decade. One of the main reasons this strategy has failed is because of a long delay between sample collection, sample analysis,(More)
There are remarkably few contemporary, population-based studies of intestinal nematode infection for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of hookworm infection intensity in a rural Ugandan community. Demographic, kinship, socioeconomic and environmental data were collected for 1,803 individuals aged six months to(More)
BACKGROUND The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and(More)
BACKGROUND The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous(More)
The host-specific relationship between fig trees (Ficus) and their pollinator wasps (Agaonidae) is a classic case of obligate mutualism. Pollinators reproduce within highly specialised inflorescences (figs) of fig trees that depend on the pollinator offspring for the dispersal of their pollen. About half of all fig trees are functionally dioecious, with(More)