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The epidemiological role of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous in the transmission of Leishmania infantum is assessed in a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil. A total of 37 wild-caught foxes were immunologically and clinically monitored, and 26 foxes exposed to laboratory colonies of the sandfly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a 15-month period. In(More)
From an analysis of the distributions of measures of transmission rates among hosts, we identify an empirical relationship suggesting that, typically, 20% of the host population contributes at least 80% of the net transmission potential, as measured by the basic reproduction number, R0. This is an example of a statistical pattern known as the 20/80 rule.(More)
Recent studies have shown that host genetics is an important determinant of the intensity of infection and morbidity due to human helminths. Epidemiological studies of a number of parasite species have shown that the intensity of infection (worm burden) is a heritable phenotype. The proportion of variance in human worm burden explained by genetic effects(More)
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. Here we review aspects of the transmission and control of ZVL. Whilst there is clear evidence that ZVL is maintained by sandfly transmission, transmission may also occur by non-sandfly routes, such as congenital and sexual transmission. Dogs are(More)
To elucidate the local tissue cytokine response of dogs infected with Leishmania chagasi, cytokine mRNA levels were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 27 naturally infected dogs from Brazil and were compared with those from 5 uninfected control animals. Interferon-gamma mRNA accumulation was enhanced in infected dogs and was positively correlated with(More)
We estimate the incidence rate, serological conversion rate and basic case reproduction number (R0) of Leishmania infantum from a cohort study of 126 domestic dogs exposed to natural infection rates over 2 years on Marajó Island, Pará State, Brazil. The analysis includes new methods for (1) determining the number of seropositives in cross-sectional(More)
Many of the genes within the Canine Major Histocompatibility Complex are highly polymorphic. Most of the alleles defined to date for DLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 come from the analysis of European or North American pure bred dogs. Little is known about DLA gene polymorphisms in other dog populations. We have studied Alaskan Husky dogs and Brazilian mongrel dogs(More)
The sensitivity and specificity of PCR, serology (ELISA) and lymphoproliferative response to Leishmania antigen for the detection of Leishmania infantum infection were evaluated in a cohort of 126 dogs exposed to natural infection in Brazil. For PCR, Leishmania DNA from bone-marrow was amplified with both minicircle and ribosomal primers. The infection(More)
The elimination of seropositive dogs in Brazil has been used to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis but with little success. To elucidate the reasons for this, the infectiousness of 50 sentinel dogs exposed to natural Leishmania chagasi infection was assessed through time by xenodiagnosis with the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Eighteen (43%) of(More)
Cytokine and proliferative responses to Necator americanus infection were measured in a treatment-reinfection study of infected subjects from an area of Papua New Guinea where N. americanus is highly endemic. Before treatment, most subjects produced detectable interleukin (IL)-4 (97%), IL-5 (86%), and interferon (IFN)- gamma (64%) in response to adult N.(More)