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The ultimate limitations of the balance, slow-manifold, and potential vorticity inversion concepts are investigated. These limitations are associated with the weak but nonvanishing spontaneous-adjustment emission, or Lighthill radiation, of inertia–gravity waves by unsteady, two-dimensional or layerwise-two-dimensional vortical flow (the wave emission(More)
Together with the data transformation towards a standard format and the archiving of output files in the distributed ESG Federation, the standard model and simulation documentation process is an essential part of the CMIP5 process. The development of the associated metadata and web questionnaire is described in this article. The outputs of climate models(More)
Climate modeling is a complex process, requiring accurate and complete metadata in order to identify, assess and use climate data stored in digital repositories. The preservation of such data is increasingly important given the development of ever-increasingly complex models to predict the effects of global climate change. The EU METAFOR project has(More)
1. Lighthill's idea Lighthill's most important idea is in our opinion the following, when expressed in a form appropriate to geo-physical fluid dynamics. The idea is that the spontaneous adjustment 1 emission of inertia–gravity waves by unsteady vortical motion is sufficiently weak, in parameter regimes of interest, that the emission may be neglected when(More)
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