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Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of perinatal death and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There are numerous causes of IUGR. Glucocorticoid-induced IUGR is highly relevant because administration of synthetic glucocorticoids, principally dexamethasone, to women threatened by premature labor is widely used in clinical practice. Fetal(More)
In the mouse, there is a large family of paralogous genes closely related to PRL. The objective of this report was to investigate the organization of the mouse PRL gene family locus. PRL family genes reside on chromosome 13 of the mouse genome. The PRL gene family members were localized to a series of overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome clones and(More)
Trophoblast cell invasion into the uterine wall is characteristic of hemochorial placentation. In this report, we examine trophoblast cell invasion in the rat and mouse, the endocrine phenotype of invasive trophoblast cells, and aspects of the regulation of trophoblast cell invasion. In the rat, trophoblast cells exhibit extensive interstitial and(More)
Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional hematopoietic growth factor that has been implicated in the control of reproduction. Studies on IL-11 receptor-alpha (IL-11R alpha)-deficient mice showed that female mice are infertile due to defective decidualization. In this report, we evaluated the development of decidual cells, immune cells, and the(More)
Successful species develop strategies to optimize their reproductive performance. This optimization likely includes the evolution of genes that specifically permit reproduction in physiologically challenging conditions. The prolactin (PRL) family gene cluster is one of 25 mouse-specific gene clusters, the majority of which are associated with reproduction.(More)
In the rat there is a large family of paralogous genes related to prolactin (PRL). Members of the PRL family are expressed in cell- and temporal-specific patterns in the anterior pituitary, uterus, and placenta. An overriding feature of the PRL family is its association with pregnancy. In this investigation, we used information derived from the public rat(More)
The in vitro development of hamster preimplantation embryos is supported by non-glucose energy substrates. To investigate the importance of embryonic metabolism, influence of succinate and malate on the development of hamster 8-cell embryos to blastocysts was examined using a chemically defined protein-free modified hamster embryo culture medium-2(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are the predominant lymphocytes present in healthy rodent and human implantation sites. In the rat, the expansion, differentiation and subsequent migration of NK cells away from the developing chorioallantoic placenta coincide with the expression of a novel pregnancy- and trophoblast cell-specific cytokine, prolactin (PRL)-like(More)