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BACKGROUND Various hypotheses link neighborhood food environments and diet. Greater exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores is thought to encourage overconsumption; supermarkets and large grocery stores are claimed to encourage healthier diets. For youth, empirical evidence for any particular hypothesis remains limited. PURPOSE This study(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. DESIGN Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the robustness of the relationship between neighbourhood food environment and youth body mass index (BMI) percentile using alternative measures of food environment and model specifications. STUDY DESIGN Observational study using individual-level longitudinal survey data of children in fifth and eighth grades merged with food outlet(More)
INTRODUCTION Varying neighborhood definitions may affect research on the association between food environments and diet and weight status. The objective of this study was to examine the association between number and type of neighborhood food outlets and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) measures among California adults according to the geographic(More)
BACKGROUND Excessive alcohol use remains an important lifestyle-related contributor to morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. It is well documented that drinking patterns differ across racial/ethnic groups, but not how those different consumption patterns would respond to tax changes. Therefore, policy makers are not informed on whether the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Older adults are frequently hospitalized from the emergency department (ED) after an episode of unexplained syncope. Current admission patterns are costly, with little evidence of benefit. We hypothesize that an ED observation syncope protocol will reduce resource use without adversely affecting patient-oriented outcomes. METHODS This(More)
BACKGROUND Screening for asymptomatic diseases can reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in all population groups. There is widespread geographical variation in the quality of care. Few data are available on national screening rates in South Africa and how these vary across the provinces. OBJECTIVE To examine screening rates for chronic diseases of(More)
AIMS To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in(More)