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The fine structure and physiological properties of chemical synapses that develop between identified leech neurones in culture have been studied by electron microscopy and by quantal analysis. Earlier work has shown that the transmitter liberated by isolated Retzius cells, serotonin, evokes chloride-dependent inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.p.s.p.s)(More)
There is increasing evidence that a functional interaction exists between interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The present study attempted to elucidate the effect of IL-1beta on the NMDA-induced outward currents in mechanically dissociated hippocampal neurons using a perforated patch recording technique. IL-1beta (30-100(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that is primarily produced by microglia in the brain. IL-1beta inhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced outward currents (I(NMDA-OUT)) through IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI) in hippocampal CA1 neurons (Zhang, R., Yamada, J., Hayashi, Y., Wu, Z, Koyama, S., Nakanishi, H., 2008. Inhibition(More)
Whether the well-known metabolic switch AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the insulin-sensitizing effect of calorie restriction (CR) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK in the insulin-sensitizing effect of CR in skeletal muscle. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK-α2(-/-) mice received ad libitum (AL) or CR (8 weeks at 60% of(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample(More)
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a promising anticancer target. Using high throughput screening system targeting NAMPT, we obtained a potent NAMPT inhibitor MS0 (China Patent ZL201110447488.9) with excellent in vitro activity (IC50 = 9.87 ± 1.15 nM) and anti-proliferative activity against multiple human cancer cell lines including stem-like(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Controversies surrounding the efficacy of surgical sealants against alveolar air leaks (AAL) in lung surgery abound in the literature. We sought to test the sealing efficacy of a novel synthetic sealant, TissuePatch™ in an in vitro lung model. METHODS The lower lobe of freshly excised swine lung (n = 10) was intubated and(More)
The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a(More)
The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a critical signal transducer downstream of growth factors that promotes the activation of the RAS-ERK1/2 cascade. In its basal state, SHP2 exists in an autoinhibited closed conformation because of an intramolecular interaction between its N-SH2 and protein tyrosine(More)
1. Parasympathetic innervation of rat eyelid tarsal smooth muscle normally inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission prejunctionally without significant direct postjunctional effects. Following surgical sympathectomy, parasympathetic stimulation elicits smooth muscle contraction. This study examined the relative contributions of cholinergic and adrenergic(More)