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Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psycho-stimulants in the world, yet little is known about its effects on brain oxygenation and metabolism. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study design, we combined transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study caffeine's effect on middle(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) impairs brain activity through demyelination and loss of axons. Increased brain activity is accompanied by increases in microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation (oxygenation) and total hemoglobin, which can be measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Due to the potentially reduced size and integrity of the(More)
Iron oxide contrast agents have been combined with magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking. In this review, we discuss coating properties and provide an overview of ex vivo and in vivo labeling of different cell types, including stem cells, red blood cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we provide examples of applications of cell tracking(More)
Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with a poor prognosis. The use of immune therapies to treat GBM has become a promising avenue of research. It was shown that amphotericin B (Amp B) can stimulate the innate immune system and suppress the growth of brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). However, it is not feasible to use(More)
Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) leads to excellent synergies which can improve the interpretation of either method and can provide novel data with respect to measuring brain oxygenation and metabolism. MRI has good spatial resolution, can detect a range of physiological parameters and is sensitive to changes(More)
Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were(More)
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method(More)
We investigated the feasibility of using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS) to study brain oxygenation in the first few hours of stroke onset. The OxiplexTS(®) fdNIRS system was used in this study. Using a standard probing protocol based on surface landmarks, we measured brain tHb and [Formula: see text] in healthy volunteers, cadavers,(More)
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