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This study aims to investigate the role of impact angles on the de-agglomeration performance of powders for inhalation. Agglomerates of a model drug mannitol were impacted at customized impaction throats containing two angles (15-75 degrees and 45-45 degrees) or a single angle (15 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees) using various air flow rates. The mass(More)
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of device design of the Aerolizer® on the aerosolization of a carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulation (Foradile®). The Aerolizer was modified by reducing the air inlet size and mouthpiece length to 1/3 of the original dimensions, or by increasing the grid voidage. Aerosolization of the powder(More)
We hypothesize that the USP induction port may de-agglomerate carrier-free powder emitting from dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Aerosols emitting from a range of DPIs (Spinhaler®, Turbuhaler® and OsmohalerTM) and induction ports (USP throat, straight tube, Alberta idealized mouth-throat geometry (AG)) were sized by laser diffraction. Total drug recovery was(More)
This paper describes a promising micro-channel multiplex immunoassay method based on the quantum dots encoded beads which requires micro-volume sample. Briefly, Au nanoparticles coated polystyrene (PS) beads were prepared and Quantum dots (QDs) were employed to encode 4 types of the PS beads by different emission wavelength QDs and various intensities.(More)
A novel approach of measuring the surface roughness of spherical and flat micron-sized drug particles using scanning white-light interferometry was applied to investigate the surface morphology of micron-sized active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipient particles used for inhalation aerosols. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and alpha-lactose(More)
Carrier-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are widely used for rapid and convenient delivery of drug to the site of action. This work aimed to predict powder aerosolisation in DPIs through numerical modelling. A multi-scale modelling technique based on the combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach was developed.(More)
The performance of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) depends on powder properties as well as the air and particle flows in the device. The main principle of powder dispersion is to overcome the inter-particle cohesion using various dispersion/ de-agglomeration forces. While different dispersion mechanisms have been identified, their relative importance under(More)
The US pharmacopeia (USP) and Alberta throats were recently reported to cause further de-agglomeration of carrier-free powders emitted from some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). This study assessed if they have similar influences on commercially available carrier-based DPIs. A straight tube, a USP throat, and an Alberta throat (non-coated and coated) were used(More)