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In plants, the first step in betaine synthesis was shown to be catalyzed by a novel Rieske-type iron-sulfur enzyme, choline monooxygenase (CMO). Although CMO so far has been found only in Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, the recent genome sequence suggests the presence of a CMO-like gene in Arabidopsis, a betaine non-accumulating plant. Here, we examined(More)
Betaine is an important osmoprotectant, synthesized by many plants in response to abiotic stresses. Almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidations of choline. Recently, a biosynthetic pathway of betaine from glycine, catalyzed by two N-methyltransferase enzymes, was found. Here, the potential role of N-methyltransferase genes for(More)
The regulation of internal Na(+) and K(+) concentrations is important for bacterial cells, which, in the absence of Na(+) extrusion systems, cannot grow in the presence of high external Na(+). Likewise, bacteria require K(+) uptake systems when the external K(+) concentration becomes too low to support growth. At present, we have little knowledge of K(+)(More)
Recently, a cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been shown to contain an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene homologous to plants (SOS1 and AtNHX1 from Arabidopsis) and mammalians (NHEs from human) but not to Escherichia coli (nhaA and nhaB). Here, we examined whether a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica has homologous genes. It turned out(More)
Betaine is an important osmoprotectant in many plants, but its transport activity has only been demonstrated using a proline transporter from tomato, a betaine-nonaccumulating plant. In this study, two full-length and one partial transporter genes were isolated from betaine-accumulating mangrove Avicennia marina. Their homologies to betaine transporters(More)
Genome sequences of cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 revealed the presence of a single Ca2+/H+ antiporter in these organisms. Here, we isolated the putative Ca2+/H+ antiporter gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (synCAX) as well as a homologous gene from a halotolerant cyanobacterium(More)
Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium which can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 3.0 M and at pH values up to 11. The genome sequence revealed that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 contains five putative Na+/H+ antiporters, two of which are homologous to NhaP of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and three of which(More)
Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the ascorbate oxidase (AAO) gene in sense and antisense orientations, and an Arabidopsis mutant in which the T-DNA was inserted into a putative AAO gene, were used to examine the potential roles of AAO for salt-stress tolerance in plants. AAO activities in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing the gene in sense and(More)
The salt tolerance of a freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942, transformed with genes involved in the synthesis of a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, betaine, catalase, and a chaperone was examined. Compared with the expression of betaine, catalase, and the chaperone, the expression of the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from a halotolerant cyanobacterium(More)
Glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important osmoprotectant and is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses. Although almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidation of choline, here we isolated two N-methyltransferase genes from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. One of gene products (ORF1)(More)