Rungaroon Waditee

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Betaine is an important osmoprotectant, synthesized by many plants in response to abiotic stresses. Almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidations of choline. Recently, a biosynthetic pathway of betaine from glycine, catalyzed by two N-methyltransferase enzymes, was found. Here, the potential role of N-methyltransferase genes for(More)
Glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important osmoprotectant and is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses. Although almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidation of choline, here we isolated two N-methyltransferase genes from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. One of gene products (ORF1)(More)
Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the ascorbate oxidase (AAO) gene in sense and antisense orientations, and an Arabidopsis mutant in which the T-DNA was inserted into a putative AAO gene, were used to examine the potential roles of AAO for salt-stress tolerance in plants. AAO activities in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing the gene in sense and(More)
In plants, the first step in betaine synthesis was shown to be catalyzed by a novel Rieske-type iron-sulfur enzyme, choline monooxygenase (CMO). Although CMO so far has been found only in Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, the recent genome sequence suggests the presence of a CMO-like gene in Arabidopsis, a betaine non-accumulating plant. Here, we examined(More)
The intracellular level of potassium (K(+)) in Escherichia coli is regulated through multiple K(+) transport systems. Recent data indicate that not all K(+) extrusion system(s) have been identified (15). Here we report that the E. coli Na(+) (Ca(2+))/H(+) antiporter ChaA functions as a K(+) extrusion system. Cells expressing ChaA mediated K(+) efflux(More)
The regulation of internal Na(+) and K(+) concentrations is important for bacterial cells, which, in the absence of Na(+) extrusion systems, cannot grow in the presence of high external Na(+). Likewise, bacteria require K(+) uptake systems when the external K(+) concentration becomes too low to support growth. At present, we have little knowledge of K(+)(More)
Betaine is an important osmoprotectant in many plants, but its transport activity has only been demonstrated using a proline transporter from tomato, a betaine-nonaccumulating plant. In this study, two full-length and one partial transporter genes were isolated from betaine-accumulating mangrove Avicennia marina. Their homologies to betaine transporters(More)
Recently, a cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been shown to contain an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene homologous to plants (SOS1 and AtNHX1 from Arabidopsis) and mammalians (NHEs from human) but not to Escherichia coli (nhaA and nhaB). Here, we examined whether a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica has homologous genes. It turned out(More)
Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium which can grow in media of up to 3.0 M NaCl and pH 11. This cyanobacterium can synthesize betaine from glycine by three-step methylation using S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor. To unveil the mechanism of betaine uptake and efflux in this alkaliphile, we isolated and characterized a(More)
Little information is available on the C-terminal hydrophilic tails of prokaryotic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. To address functional properties of the C-terminal tail, truncation mutants in this domain were constructed. Truncation of C-terminal amino acid residues of NhaP1 type antiporter from Synechocystis PCC6803 (SynNhaP1) did not change the V(max) values,(More)