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This article began as a review of a conference, organized by Gerhard Schlosser, entitled "Modularity in Development and Evolution." The conference was held at, and sponsored by, the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg in Delmenhorst, Germany in May, 2000. The article subsequently metamorphosed into a literature and concept review as well as an analysis of the(More)
Concerned with serious problems regarding security as a safety issue, a HAZOP specifically suited for identifying security threats has been developed. Unfortunately, the emphasis placed on security issues when developing safety critical systems is to often inadequate, possibly due to the lack of " safety-compliant " security methods. Having had the(More)
August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation(More)
I Abstract Critical programmable systems must be verified for safety in operation, this implying a need for a simple and low-complexity source code as possible. The need to develop simple and verifiable source code considerably reduces the possibility of using sophisticated and adaptable algorithms, e.g. artificial neural networks (ANNs) in a critical(More)
Structure Preserving Algorithms for Differential Equations are discrete computational methods coined at exactly preserving important geometric or analytic properties of the continuous physical system. Over the last decade the importance of exact structure preservation has been understood in a variety of application areas. There are a number of computational(More)
Dangerous diseases have many kinds of effects on people. The risk of being taken ill or dying is obviously the primary concern for most patients. Challenges of adhering to longitudinal cures, which may require a disciplined regime of living or acceptance of physical discomfort, are lesser-known secondary aspects. If they lead to non-adherence to the cures,(More)
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