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  • R Elvik
  • 2001
This paper presents a meta-analysis of 33 studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of area-wide urban traffic calming schemes. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes are typically implemented in residential areas in towns in order to reduce the environmental and safety problems caused by road traffic. A hierarchical road system is established(More)
This paper is a corrigendum to a previously published paper where errors were detected. The errors have been corrected in this paper. The paper is otherwise identical to the previously published paper. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have assessed the risk of accident associated with the use of drugs when driving is presented. The(More)
  • R Elvik
  • 1995
Evidence from 32 studies that have evaluated the safety effects of median barriers, guardrails along the edge of the road, and crash cushions (impact attenuators) is summarized by means of a meta-analysis. Two hundred and thirty-two (232) estimates of safety effects are included in the meta-analysis. The presence of publication bias is tested by means of(More)
  • R Elvik
  • 2000
This paper presents estimates of how much road accidents cost the national economy, stated as a percentage of the gross national product (GNP). Official estimates of road accident costs from 1990 or later were compiled from easily accessible sources for twelve countries. Estimates of the gross national product were taken from OECD publications. On the(More)
Several studies show that the risks of injury to pedestrians and cyclists are highly non-linear. This means that the more pedestrians or cyclists there are, the lower is the risk faced by each pedestrian or cyclist. On the other hand, the more motor vehicles there are, the higher becomes the risk faced by each pedestrian or cyclist. The relationships found(More)
Some road safety problems have persisted for a long time in nearly all motorised countries, suggesting that they are not easily solved. This paper documents the persistence over time of five such problems: the high risk of accidents involving young drivers; the high risk of injury run by unprotected road users; risks attributable to incompatibility between(More)
Bicycle injuries and fatalities are reported by the police to Statistics Norway. Fatality records from the police are then corrected with Vital Statistics records. However, there is no complete hospital recording that could provide more correct data for bicycle injuries. Bicycle injuries are underreported in official data. There is a nearly complete(More)
In this paper it is argued that conventional analyses of road user adaptation to traffic law enforcement, based on parametric rational-choice theory, are flawed. Such analyses only consider road-user actions as a response to enforcement level and penalty size and do not simultaneously consider enforcement as a response to road-user behaviour. If each party(More)
  • R Elvik
  • 1997
Numerous evaluation studies have reported large accident reductions when road accident blackspots are treated. A critical examination of these studies reveals that many of them do not account for the effects of well known confounding factors, like the regression-to-the-mean effect that is likely to occur at road accident blackspots. This paper shows that(More)