Rukia M. Kibaya

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BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine development remains a global priority. We describe the safety and immunogenicity of a multiclade DNA vaccine prime with a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost. METHODS The vaccine is a 6-plasmid mixture encoding HIV envelope (env) subtypes A, B, and C and subtype B gag,(More)
As part of a program to determine the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus in rural Kenya, we carried out a molecular analysis of the C2-V3 region of HIV-infected blood samples obtained from 30 antenatal clinic attendees of seven health centers in western Kenya. Direct sequencing was carried out on the envelope C2-V3 region of proviral DNA. On(More)
To investigate the in vivo evolution of recombinant HIV, we followed up on a mother who was initially coinfected with subtypes A and D in Kenya. Blood samples were obtained in 1996 and 2002, and HIV pol and env genes were amplified by PCR, cloned, sequenced, and phylogenetically analyzed. As for the 1996 sample most of the clones generated from the pol and(More)
We report a prospective comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 testing by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot with four rapid tests of 486 subjects performed in rural Kenya. Rapid test sensitivity was 100%. Specificity ranged from 99.1 to 100%. Combined use of two Food and Drug Administration-approved rapid tests yielded a single false-positive(More)
In preparation for HIV-1 vaccine trials in Kenya, 2801 study volunteers, from a tea plantation in Kericho, were recruited as part of a prospective vaccine cohort development study. Cryopreserved plasma was available from 401 HIV-positive volunteers, and was the source of viral RNA for genotyping by the multiregion hybridization assay (MHA). Logistic(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence data from prospective cohort studies using rigorous laboratory methods are important in designing and evaluating HIV vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials and health care programs. We report 36-month HIV-1 incidence rates and demographic and psychosocial risks from the Kericho cohort in rural Kenya's southern Rift Valley Province. (More)
Drug use in Kenya dates back to the precolonial period but research among drug users in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated risk and intervention strategies has been low. To evaluate HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance among injecting drug users (IDUs), a cross-sectional study involving 58 patients was carried out in Mombasa between(More)
The extracts from 21 medicinal plants commonly used in traditional remedies in Kenya were screened for antiviral activity against wild type 7401H strain herpes simplex virus type 1. The plant extracts exhibited antiviral activity against the virus in the plaque and yield reduction assays. The results reveal that twelve plants may contain constituents that(More)
Extracts from twenty two medicinal plants popularly used in preparing traditional remedies in Kenya were screened for activity against the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The screening procedure involved the use of tritium labeled thymidine triphosphate as the enzyme substrate and polyadenylic acid.oligodeoxythymidylic acid [poly(rA).p(dT)12-18] as the(More)
Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in(More)