Ruizhi Zhang

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Rust caused by Melampsora larici-populina is one of the most damaging diseases of poplars. Rust is considered to be a model pathogen for genetic studies because both pathogen and host genomes are available. The poplar ‘Robusta’, whose general rust resistance is defeated by virulent rust E4, provides suitable host material for studies of the gene regulation(More)
The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different(More)
There are numerous examples of convergent evolution in nature. Major ecological adaptations such as flight, loss of limbs in vertebrates, pesticide resistance, adaptation to a parasitic way of life, etc., have all evolved more than once, as seen by their analogous functions in separate taxa. But what about protein evolution? Does the environment have a(More)
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