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We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of(More)
The influenza A viral heterotrimeric polymerase complex (PA, PB1, PB2) is known to be involved in many aspects of viral replication and to interact with host factors, thereby having a role in host specificity. The polymerase protein sequences from the 1918 human influenza virus differ from avian consensus sequences at only a small number of amino acids,(More)
This study presents an interconnected approach for circumventing two inherent limitations associated with studies defining the natural history of influenza A viruses in wild birds. The first limiting factor is the ability to maintain a cold chain from specimen collection to the laboratory when study sites are in more remote locations. The second limiting(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of total energy expenditure (TEE) and its components in the ability of collared lemmings to increase weight in response to a decrease in photoperiod. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Energy expenditure was measured by 24-hour indirect calorimetry concurrent with food-intake studies. TEE and resting and nonresting energy(More)
The swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in early 2009 and caused the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. The virus has spread efficiently to both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres and has been associated with over 16,000 deaths. Given the virus's recent zoonotic origin, there is concern that the virus could acquire signature mutations(More)
Coxsackievirus B type 3 (CVB3) is one of the major pathogens associated with human heart disease. miRNAs are a class of short, noncoding RNA that can post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression. By comparing the CVB3 genome and miR-342-5p sequences, we found there were potential miR-342-5p targets in the CVB3 genome. To verify the effect of miR-342-5p(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs. During miRNA biogenesis, the star strand (miRNA*) is generally degraded to a low level in the cells. However, certain miRNA* express abundantly and can be recruited into the silencing complex to regulate gene expression. Most(More)
Serum-soluble factors play a dominant role in the activation of the small GTPase RhoA. Cell adhesion also modulates RhoA activity but the effect is modest in the absence of serum. Here, we show that cell adhesion is required for serum-stimulated Rho signal transduction leading to myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Characterization of Rho-kinase(More)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid(More)
Free chlorine was found to be able to destroy the passivated surface of the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) obtained by pyrolyzing citric acid, resulting in significant quenching of their fluorescence (FL) signal. After optimizing some experimental conditions (including response time, concentration of GQDs, and pH value of solution), a green and facile sensing(More)