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Since 2005, an unresolved debate has questioned whether R-shaped vulnerability curves (VCs) might be an artefact of the centrifuge method of measuring VCs. VCs with R-shape show loss of stem conductivity from approximately zero tension, and if true, this suggests that some plants either refill embolized vessels every night or function well with a high(More)
Overwhelming activation of IL-17, a gene involved in inflammation, leads to exaggerated Th17 responses associated with numerous autoimmune conditions, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we show that TCF-1 is a critical factor to repress IL-17 gene locus by chromatin modifications during T cell development. Deletion of TCF-1(More)
Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORgamma t) is a member of the nuclear receptor family that is specifically expressed in T cell compartments. RORgamma t regulates the development of T cells in the thymus and the differentiation of effector T cells in the periphery. During T cell development, RORgamma t enhances CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC)-θ has been shown to be a critical TCR signaling molecule that promotes the activation and differentiation of naive T cells into inflammatory effector T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that PKC-θ-mediated signals inhibit inducible regulatory T cell (iTreg) differentiation via an AKT-Foxo1/3A pathway. TGF-β-induced iTreg(More)
T cells must undergo two critical differentiation processes before they become competent effectors that can mediate actual immune responses. Progenitor T cells undergo defined stages of differentiation in the thymus, which include positive and negative selection, to generate a repertoire of T cells that will respond to foreign but not self antigens. When(More)
Survival of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes plays a critical role in shaping the peripheral T cell repertoire. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of DP thymocyte lifespan remain poorly understood. In this work, we demonstrate that T cell factor (TCF)-1 regulates DP thymocyte survival by upregulating RORγt. Microarray(More)
In response to Ag stimulation, Ag-specific T cells proliferate and accumulate in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. To avoid excessive T cell accumulation, the immune system has developed mechanisms to delete clonally expanded T cells. Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in the deletion of activated peripheral T cells, which is clearly(More)
Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is a key kinase in mediating T cell receptor (TCR) signals. PKC-θ activated by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement translocates to immunological synapses and regulates the activation of transcriptional factors NFκB, AP-1, and NFAT. These transcription factors then activate target genes such as IL-2. T cells deficient in PKC-θ(More)
A pair of chemical isomeric structures of N-acylhydrazone compounds I and II were designed and synthesized. The reaction was carried out with high diastereoselectivity to obtain one configurational isomer in excellent yields. The exact configuration and conformation of IIa and IIe were confirmed by the X-ray single crystal diffraction. The antitumor(More)
Although protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ)-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of Th17-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the function of PKC-θ in Th17 differentiation remains unknown. In this article, we show that purified, naive CD4 PKC-θ(-/-) T cells were defective in Th17 differentiation, whereas Th1 and Th2 differentiation appeared(More)