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Viral pathogens are a major threat to rice production worldwide. Although RNA interference (RNAi) is known to mediate antiviral immunity in plant and animal models, the mechanism of antiviral RNAi in rice and other economically important crops is poorly understood. Here, we report that rice resistance to evolutionarily diverse viruses requires Argonaute18(More)
In plants, DNA methylation can be mediated by a class of Argonaute4 (AGO4)-associated heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs), through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). It has been thought that RdDM is solely a nuclear process, as both the biogenesis and functioning of hc-siRNAs take place in the nucleus. In this study, we unexpectedly found(More)
As key components in the eukaryotic gene regulatory network, microRNAs (miRNAs) themselves are regulated at the level of both metabolism and activity. To identify factors that modulate miRNA activity, we used an Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic line expressing an artificial miRNA that causes trichome clustering and performed a screen for mutants with(More)
DNA methylation directed by 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) plays critical roles in gene regulation and transposon silencing in Arabidopsis. 24-nt siRNAs are known to be processed from double-stranded RNAs by Dicer-like 3 (DCL3) and loaded into the effector Argonaute 4 (AGO4). Here we report a distinct class of siRNAs independent of DCLs(More)
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