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Tobacco use has one of the highest rates of addiction and relapse of any abused drug. Paradoxically, however, in animal models of reinforcement nicotine appears weak compared to other abused drugs. We report here that acetaldehyde, a major component of tobacco smoke, enhances nicotine self-administration. Juvenile and adult male rats were implanted with(More)
Although initiation of drug abuse occurs primarily during adolescence, little is known about the central effects of nicotine and other abused drugs during this developmental period. Here evidence, derived from studies in rodents, is presented that suggests that tobacco use initiation during early adolescence results from a higher reward value of nicotine.(More)
Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy is an emergent issue in China with increase in patients with type II diabetes. There are several successful Chinese herbal products for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy in China. However, the mechanisms mediating the biological activity of these products are still unclear. Podocalyxin is a sialoprotein(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the potentiation effect of Genipin to Cisplatin induced cell senescence in HCT-116 colon cancer cells in vitro. METHODS Cell viability was estimated by Propidium iodide and Hoechst 3342, reactive oxygen species (ROS) with DHE, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with JC-1 MMP assay Kit and electron current production with(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to comprehensively compare the 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided and conventional 2-dimensional (2D) point A-based intracavitary brachytherapy (BT) planning for cervical cancer with regard to target dose coverage and dosages to adjacent organs-at risk (OARs). METHODS A total of 79 patients(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a plasma protein responsible for transporting lipid and cholesterol, modulates responses of the central nervous system to injury. Small peptides derived from the receptor-binding region of apoE can simulate some important bioactivities of apoE holoprotein and offer neuroprotection against brain injury. We tested whether COG1410, an(More)
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