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Tobacco use has one of the highest rates of addiction and relapse of any abused drug. Paradoxically, however, in animal models of reinforcement nicotine appears weak compared to other abused drugs. We report here that acetaldehyde, a major component of tobacco smoke, enhances nicotine self-administration. Juvenile and adult male rats were implanted with(More)
Although initiation of drug abuse occurs primarily during adolescence, little is known about the central effects of nicotine and other abused drugs during this developmental period. Here evidence, derived from studies in rodents, is presented that suggests that tobacco use initiation during early adolescence results from a higher reward value of nicotine.(More)
Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
We previously reported strong genetic linkage on chromosome 14q to Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the presence of co-morbid hallucinations as a covariate. Those results suggested the presence of a gene increasing the risk for a genetically homogeneous form of AD characterized by the absence of comorbid hallucinations. Here we report our follow up of that(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia with a strong genetic component and risk sharply increasing with age. We performed two parallel microarray experiments to independently identify genes involved in normal aging and genes involved in AD using RNA extracted from the temporal lobe of 22 late onset AD and 23 control brain donors. We found(More)
Neurocognitive abilities constitute complex traits with considerable heritability. Impaired neurocognition is typically observed in schizophrenia (SZ), whereas convergent evidence has shown shared genetic determinants between neurocognition and SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on neuropsychological and oculomotor traits, linked to(More)
A new self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) has been developed to increase the solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of vinpocetine (VIP), a poor water-soluble drug. The formulations of VIP-SMEDDS were optimized by solubility assay, compatibility tests, and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams analysis. The optimal ratio in the(More)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disabling neurodegenerative disorder with onset commonly in late life. Three genes have been identified causing earlier onset AD, and a fourth has been shown to be a risk factor for late onset AD (LOAD), while many more yet unrecognized genes are thought to contribute to susceptibility. Many studies have reported linkage to(More)
We have previously reported strong linkage on chromosome 10q in pedigrees transmitting Alzheimer's disease through the mother, overlapping with many significant linkage reports including the largest reported study. Here, we report the most comprehensive fine mapping of this region to date. In a sample of 638 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and(More)
RESTIN, a member of the melanoma-associated antigen superfamily, is a nuclear protein induced by atRA (all-trans retinoic acid) in HL60 cells. HeLa cells stably transfected with restin results in G1 cell cycle arrest. How this gene is regulated by atRA in the cell differentiation process is still unclear. In this study, we observed that up-regulation of(More)