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To obtain a full picture of microtubule (MT) behavior during the opening and closure of guard cells we have microinjected living guard cells ofVicia faba with fluorescent tubulin, examined fine detail by freeze shattering fixed cells, and used drug treatments to confirm aspects of MT dynamics. Cortical MTs in fully opened guard cells are transversely(More)
We present a global optimization strategy that incorporates predicted restraints in both a local optimization context and as directives for global optimization approaches, to predict protein tertiary structure for alpha-helical proteins. Specifically, neural networks are used to predict the secondary structure of a protein, restraints are defined as(More)
Dear Editor, The Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental cellular process that governs biological processes, such as embryonic development, tumor cell metastasis, organ fibrosis and tissue regeneration. EMTallows polarized, immotile epithelial cells to transform intomotilemesenchymal cells. This switch ismediated by regulatory factors such(More)
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