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Influenza A virus (IAV) lacks the enzyme for adding 5' caps to its RNAs and snatches the 5' ends of host capped RNAs to prime transcription. Neither the preference of the host RNA sequences snatched nor the effect of cap-snatching on host processes is completely defined. Previous studies of influenza cap-snatching used poly(A)-selected RNAs from infected(More)
Free-rider problem greatly influences the performance of unstructured networks (like ad hoc or peer-to-peer networks). To solve such problem, we focus on trust management framework, which is intended to stimulate nodes to cooperate with each other and prevent free-riders. Currently, the existing trust management framework can be classified into trust(More)
In the present study the capacity of Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract (RPRAE) as an antioxidant to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats was investigated. Six groups of rats were used. Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract (100 or 200 or 300 mg/kg of bw) or bifendate (100 mg/kg of bw)(More)