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Chronic exposure to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a potent inducer of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the environment and food can cause liver diseases. It remains unknown whether caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) exerted protective effect on PCB-induced hepatotoxicity. We sought to evaluate the activities of 3 CADs on PCB169-induced… (More)
A copper-catalyzed domino reaction between itaconate esters and diethyl zinc (or silane) is developed, affording itaconate dimerization products, multi-ester-substituted cyclopentanones, in moderate to high yields.