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Stocks can be overpriced when short sale constraints bind. We study the costs of short selling equities, 1926-1933, using the publicly observable market for borrowing stock. Some stocks are sometimes expensive to short, and it appears that stocks enter the borrowing market when shorting demand is high. We find that stocks that are expensive to short or(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and causes diarrheal disease worldwide. Innate epithelial immune responses are key mediators of the host's defense to C. parvum. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in regulation of both innate and adaptive(More)
The majority of human miRNA genes is transcribed by polymerase II and can be classified as class II genes similar to protein-coding genes. Whereas current research on miRNAs has focused on the physiological and pathological functions, the molecular mechanisms underlying their transcriptional regulation are largely unknown. We recently reported that(More)
Haemophilus parasuis can be either a commensal bacterium of the porcine respiratory tract or an opportunistic pathogen causing Glässer's disease, a severe systemic disease that has led to significant economical losses in the pig industry worldwide. We determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5,(More)
Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) is an important swine pathogen that causes Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, meningitis and arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of the disease remain poorly understood, particularly the resistance of porcine immune system to HPS invasion. In this study, we(More)
Biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) respond to proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and actively participate in the regulation of biliary inflammatory response in the liver. B7-H1 (also known as CD274 or PD-L1) is a member of the B7 costimulatory molecules and plays a critical immunoregulatory role in cell-mediated immune responses. In this(More)
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a cause of considerable world wide economic losses in the swine industry. We sequenced the complete genome of A. pleuropneumoniae, JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China. Its genome is a single chromosome of 2,242,062 base pairs containing 2,097(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a lethal respiratory infectious disease causing great economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. In order to better interpret the genetic background of serotypic diversity, nine genomes of A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains of(More)
Mucosal surface epithelial cells are equipped with several defense mechanisms that guard against pathogens. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate post-transcriptional gene suppression and may be a critical component of the complex regulatory networks in epithelial immune responses. Transcription of miRNA genes in epithelial cells can be(More)