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Identifying the genetic variants that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans has been a formidable challenge. Adopting a genome-wide association strategy, we genotyped 1161 Finnish T2D cases and 1174 Finnish normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) controls with >315,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed genotypes for an additional >2(More)
The posttranscriptional mechanisms that control the cycling of circadian clock protein levels are not known. Here we demonstrate a role for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the cyclic expression of the PER protein. PP2A regulatory subunits TWS and WDB target PER and stabilize it in S2 cells. In adult fly heads, expression of tws cycles robustly under(More)
Both poikilotherms and homeotherms live longer at lower body temperatures, highlighting a general role of temperature reduction in lifespan extension. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One prominent model is that cold temperatures reduce the rate of chemical reactions, thereby slowing the rate of aging. This view suggests that(More)
Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces a renewable liquid fuel called pyrolysis oil that is the cheapest liquid fuel produced from biomass today. Here we show that pyrolysis oils can be converted into industrial commodity chemical feedstocks using an integrated catalytic approach that combines hydroprocessing with zeolite catalysis. The(More)
RNAP II is frequently paused near gene promoters in mammals, and its transition to productive elongation requires active recruitment of P-TEFb, a cyclin-dependent kinase for RNAP II and other key transcription elongation factors. A fraction of P-TEFb is sequestered in an inhibitory complex containing the 7SK noncoding RNA, but it has been unclear how P-TEFb(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that recycles nutrients upon starvation and maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Its acute regulation by nutrient-sensing signalling pathways is well described, but its longer-term transcriptional regulation is not. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and(More)
Seventeen transient receptor potential (TRP) family proteins are encoded by the C. elegans genome, and they cover all of the seven TRP subfamilies, including TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML. Classical forward and reverse genetic screens have isolated mutant alleles in every C. elegans trp gene, and their characterizations have revealed novel(More)
Color quantization (CQ) is an image processing task popularly used to convert true color images to palletized images for limited color display devices. To minimize the contouring artifacts introduced by the reduction of colors, a new competitive learning (CL) based scheme called the frequency sensitive self-organizing maps (FS-SOMs) is proposed to optimize(More)
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an infantile-onset form of inherited retinal degeneration characterized by severe vision loss(1,2). Two-thirds of LCA cases are caused by mutations in 17 known disease-associated genes(3) (Retinal Information Network (RetNet)). Using exome sequencing we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.25G>A, p.Val9Met) in(More)