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Identifying the genetic variants that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans has been a formidable challenge. Adopting a genome-wide association strategy, we genotyped 1161 Finnish T2D cases and 1174 Finnish normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) controls with >315,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed genotypes for an additional >2(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1(More)
The posttranscriptional mechanisms that control the cycling of circadian clock protein levels are not known. Here we demonstrate a role for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the cyclic expression of the PER protein. PP2A regulatory subunits TWS and WDB target PER and stabilize it in S2 cells. In adult fly heads, expression of tws cycles robustly under(More)
Both poikilotherms and homeotherms live longer at lower body temperatures, highlighting a general role of temperature reduction in lifespan extension. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One prominent model is that cold temperatures reduce the rate of chemical reactions, thereby slowing the rate of aging. This view suggests that(More)
Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores represents an important cell signalling process that is regulated, in mammalian cells, by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)), cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). InsP(3) and cyclic ADP ribose cause the release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stores(More)
Transient receptor potential channels are involved in sensing chemical and physical changes inside and outside of cells. TRPV3 is highly expressed in skin keratinocytes, where it forms a nonselective cation channel activated by hot temperatures in the innocuous and noxious range. The channel has also been implicated in flavor sensation in oral and nasal(More)
Calcium entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is critical in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and calcium metabolism. In this report, we demonstrate both spatially resolved and temporally distinct effects of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) on L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) in rat cardiac myocytes. Either depolarization(More)
Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces a renewable liquid fuel called pyrolysis oil that is the cheapest liquid fuel produced from biomass today. Here we show that pyrolysis oils can be converted into industrial commodity chemical feedstocks using an integrated catalytic approach that combines hydroprocessing with zeolite catalysis. The(More)
Efficient excitatory transmission depends on a family of transporters that use the Na(+)-electrochemical gradient to maintain low synaptic concentrations of glutamate. These transporters consume substantial energy in the spatially restricted space of fine astrocytic processes. GLT-1 (EAAT2) mediates the bulk of this activity in forebrain. To date,(More)
Ca2+ sparks, the elementary units of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release in cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle are localized (2-4 microns ) increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, that last briefly (30-100 ms). These Ca2+ sparks arise from the openings of a single SR Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) or a few RyRs acting(More)