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1. Extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was determined in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN) and nucleus accumbens by use of microdialysis in unanaesthetized rats. 2. Infusion of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist muscimol into DRN and MRN resulted in decreased 5-HT in DRN and MRN, respectively. Muscimol infusion(More)
Systemic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) elicits larger increases in serotonin (5-HT) in raphe than in forebrain sites. Because serotonergic neuronal activity is suppressed, the mechanism underlying SSRI-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT is unclear. This study determined whether local infusion of SSRIs also elicited(More)
Regulation of serotonin release by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate was examined by microdialysis in unanaesthetized rats. The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, or the glutamate receptor agonists kainate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolaproprionate or N-methyl-D-aspartate were infused into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) while(More)
The effect of morphine on serotonin (5-HT) was examined by microdialysis in unanesthetized and anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized rats, morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) produced increases in extracellular 5-HT in nucleus accumbens (n. accumbens) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but not in the dorsal hippocampus. Similarly, extracellular 5-HT in the n. accumbens,(More)
Nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, is an antibiotic peptide to effectively antagonize a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, and is widely used as a safe food antimicrobial agent. In the present study, we investigated whether nisin could be used as an effective antibiotic peptide against the nine common cariogenic microorganisms, and its(More)
Orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons in the perifornical hypothalamus project to widespread regions of the brain, including the dorsal and median raphe nuclei [Peyron C, Tighe DK, van den Pol AN, de Lecea L, Heller HC, Sutcliffe JG, Kilduff TS (1998) Neurons containing hypocretin (orexin) project to multiple neuronal systems. J Neurosci 18:9996-10015;(More)
Regulation of serotonin (5-HT) release may be altered during the development of opioid tolerance and dependency. To test this hypothesis, changes in extracellular 5-HT during prolonged administration of morphine were determined by microdialysis in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of freely behaving rats. Morphine or placebo pellets were implanted s.c. As(More)
RNA damages, such as those generated by nucleic acid-modifying agents, occur randomly in RNA and present challenging problems to organisms. It has been unclear how RNA function would be affected by many forms of RNA damage and how cells are protected against the damage. Elucidation of these mechanisms has been hampered by the lack of sensitive and efficient(More)
Taurine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and is one of the most abundant amino acids present in the mammalian nervous system. Taurine has been shown to provide protection against neurological diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. It is(More)
Similar to kappa-opioids, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (OFQ) exerts anti-mu-opioid actions. This may involve interactions within the circuitry controlling 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of OFQ and kappa-opioids on 5-HT efflux in the CNS of freely(More)