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The effect of morphine on serotonin (5-HT) was examined by microdialysis in unanesthetized and anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized rats, morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) produced increases in extracellular 5-HT in nucleus accumbens (n. accumbens) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but not in the dorsal hippocampus. Similarly, extracellular 5-HT in the n. accumbens,(More)
Taurine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and is one of the most abundant amino acids present in the mammalian nervous system. Taurine has been shown to provide protection against neurological diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. It is(More)
1. Extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was determined in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN) and nucleus accumbens by use of microdialysis in unanaesthetized rats. 2. Infusion of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist muscimol into DRN and MRN resulted in decreased 5-HT in DRN and MRN, respectively. Muscimol infusion(More)
Opioid receptor subtypes may have site-specific effects and play different roles in modulating serotonergic neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure changes in extracellular serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in response to local infusion of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid(More)
Regulation of serotonin release by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate was examined by microdialysis in unanaesthetized rats. The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, or the glutamate receptor agonists kainate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolaproprionate or N-methyl-D-aspartate were infused into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) while(More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to determine if morphine produces increases in extracellular serotonin in specific brain sites. With citalopram included in the dialysis solution to block reuptake, serotonin was measured in 11 brain sites of unanesthetized rats. After systemic morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), increases in extracellular serotonin were observed in(More)
The dorsal (DRN) and median raphe nuclei (MRN) are two major sources of serotonergic projections to forebrain that are involved in regulation of behavioral state and motor activity, and implicated in affective disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. To investigate afferent influences on serotonergic neurons, this study compared the role of(More)
To characterize the effects of morphine on serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system, we used microdialysis in freely behaving rats. Subcutaneous injection of morphine sulfate produced a dose-dependent increase in extracellular 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and a forebrain site, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine the site of action for(More)
In this paper we summarize our TRECVID 2014 [12] video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in five tasks: concept detection, object localization, instance search, event recognition and recounting. We experimented with concept detection using deep learning and color difference coding [17], object localization using FLAIR [23], instance(More)