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The central role of T cell activation in hepatocellular injury has been well documented. In this article, we provide evidence suggesting that T cells may also play a protective role in liver disease by releasing interleukin-22 (IL-22), a recently identified T cell-derived cytokine whose biological significance is unclear. IL-22 messenger RNA and protein(More)
Herpesviruses exist in two states, latency and a lytic productive cycle. Here we identify an immediate-early gene encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus eight (HHV8) that activates lytic cycle gene expression from the latent viral genome. The gene is a homologue of Rta, a transcriptional activator encoded by Epstein-Barr(More)
Liver natural killer (NK) cells were recently reported to possess memory-like properties in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models. However, the phenotype and origin of these "memory" NK cells cannot be distinguished from other NK cell subpopulations. Here, we define the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional features of liver NK cell subsets and their(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Viral hepatitis infection, which is a major cause of liver fibrosis, is associated with activation of innate immunity. However, the role of innate immunity in liver fibrosis remains obscure. METHODS Liver fibrosis was induced either by feeding mice with the 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet or by injecting them with(More)
A newly recognized gamma herpesvirus known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is present in Kaposi sarcomas and body-cavity-based lymphomas. Here we identify a novel abundant 1.2-kb RNA, polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA), encoded by the virus. The majority of cDNAs produced from poly(A)-selected RNA isolated(More)
BACKGROUND The recent identification in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of DNA sequences with homology to gammaherpesviruses has led to the hypothesis that a newly identified virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpeslike virus (KSHV), has a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. We developed serologic markers for KSHV infection. METHODS KSHV(More)
The BC-1 cell line, derived from a body cavity-based, B-cell lymphoma, is dually infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In these studies, the relationships between these two gammaherpesviruses and BC-1 cells were characterized and compared. Single-cell cloning experiments suggested that all BC-1 cells(More)
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) encodes a novel noncoding polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA (also known as T1.1 or nut-1) during the early phase of lytic replication. PAN RNA is the most abundant transcript of HHV-8, comprising 80% of total poly(A)-selected transcripts in HHV-8-infected cells during lytic(More)
Herpesvirus gene expression can be classified into four distinct kinetic stages: latent, immediate early, early, and late. Here we characterize the kinetic class of a group of 16 Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 genes in a cultured primary effusion cell line and examine the expression of a subset of these genes in KS(More)
Herpesviruses are characterized as having two distinct life cycle phases: lytic replication and latency. The mechanisms of latency establishment and maintenance, as well as the switch from latency to lytic replication, are poorly understood. Human gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's(More)