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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) gag/pol and env mRNAs contain cis-acting regulatory elements (INS) that impair stability, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and translation by unknown mechanisms. This downregulation can be counteracted by the viral Rev protein, resulting in efficient export and expression of these mRNAs. Here, we show that the INS(More)
PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) has been implicated in both early and late steps of pre-mRNA splicing, but its exact role in this process remains unclear. Here we show that PSF interacts with p54nrb, a highly related protein first identified based on cross-reactivity to antibodies against the yeast second-step splicing factor Prpl8. We performed(More)
In the practice of molecular dating, substitution saturation will bias the results if not properly modeled. Date estimates based on commonly used mitochondrial DNA sequences likely suffer from this problem because of their high substitution rate. Nevertheless, the patterns and extent of such expected bias remain unknown for many major evolutionary lineages,(More)
The majority of mutations that cause isolated growth hormone deficiency type II are the result of aberrant splicing of transcripts encoding human growth hormone. Such mutations increase skipping of exon 3 and encode a 17.5-kDa protein that acts as a dominant negative to block secretion of full-length protein produced from unaffected alleles. Previously, we(More)
Most targeted anticancer drugs are inhibitors of kinases that are aberrantly activated in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which kinase inhibitors suppress tumor growth remain unclear. In this study, we found that UCN-01, a staurosporine analogue and broad-range kinase inhibitor used in clinical trials, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by inducing(More)
The record superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) for the iron-based high-temperature superconductors (Fe-HTS) has long been 56 K. Recently, in single-layer FeSe films grown on SrTiO3 substrates, indications of a new record of 65 K have been reported. Using in situ photoemission measurements, we substantiate the presence of spin density waves (SDWs)(More)
Graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively explored in nanomedicine for its excellent physiochemical, electrical, and optical properties. Here, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) are covalently conjugated to GO via amide bonds, obtaining a physiologically stable dual-polymer-functionalized nano-GO conjugate (NGO-PEG-PEI) with ultra-small(More)
Photothermal ablation of primary tumors with single-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated to be able to trigger significant adaptive immune responses, which are not observed if tumors are removed by surgical resection. Such a treatment in combination with anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy is able to prevent the development of tumor metastasis, which is a major(More)
State-of-the-art neural networks are getting deeper and wider. While their performance increases with the increasing number of layers and neurons, it is crucial to design an efficient deep architecture in order to reduce computational and memory costs. Designing an efficient neural network, however, is labor intensive requiring many experiments, and(More)