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Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6, has a central role in autophagy, a process of programmed cell survival, which is increased during periods of cell stress and extinguished during the cell cycle. It interacts with several cofactors (Atg14L, UVRAG, Bif-1, Rubicon, Ambra1, HMGB1, nPIST, VMP1, SLAM, IP(3)R, PINK and survivin) to regulate the(More)
Autophagy clears long-lived proteins and dysfunctional organelles and generates substrates for adenosine triphosphate production during periods of starvation and other types of cellular stress. Here we show that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-associated nuclear protein and extracellular damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, is a(More)
The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts [RAGE] is an evolutionarily recent member of the immunoglobulin super-family, encoded in the Class III region of the major histocompatability complex. RAGE is highly expressed only in the lung at readily measurable levels but increases quickly at sites of inflammation, largely on inflammatory and epithelial(More)
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a chromatin associated nuclear protein and extracellular damage associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), is an evolutionarily ancient and critical regulator of cell death and survival. Overexpression of HMGB1 is associated with each of the hallmarks of cancer including unlimited replicative potential, ability(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) are derived from microorganisms and recognized by pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-bearing cells of the innate immune system as well as many epithelial cells. In contrast, damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) are cell-derived and initiate and perpetuate immunity in response to(More)
The functional relationship and cross-regulation between autophagy and apoptosis is complex. In this study we show that the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a redox-sensitive regulator of the balance between autophagy and apoptosis. In cancer cells, anticancer agents enhanced autophagy and apoptosis, as well as HMGB1 release. HMGB1 release may(More)
Complex genetic and physiological variations as well as environmental factors that drive emergence of chromosomal instability, development of unscheduled cell death, skewed differentiation, and altered metabolism are central to the pathogenesis of human diseases and disorders. Understanding the molecular bases for these processes is important for the(More)
Activation of the induced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) leads to initiation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinase signaling pathways, resulting in propagation and perpetuation of inflammation. RAGE-knockout animals are less susceptible to acute inflammation and carcinogen-induced tumor development. We have reported that most forms of tumor cell(More)
Oxidative stress and associated reactive oxygen species can modify lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, and induce the mitochondrial permeability transition, providing a signal leading to the induction of autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a chromatin-binding nuclear protein and damage-associated(More)
Osteosarcoma is the most commonly occurring bone cancer in children and adolescents. Unfortunately, treatment failures are common due to the development of chemoresistance, for which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we implicate the DNA-binding protein HMGB1, which also exerts immunoregulatory effects in its secreted form,(More)