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Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6, has a central role in autophagy, a process of programmed cell survival, which is increased during periods of cell stress and extinguished during the cell cycle. It interacts with several cofactors (Atg14L, UVRAG, Bif-1, Rubicon, Ambra1, HMGB1, nPIST, VMP1, SLAM, IP(3)R, PINK and survivin) to regulate the(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) are derived from microorganisms and recognized by pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-bearing cells of the innate immune system as well as many epithelial cells. In contrast, damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) are cell-derived and initiate and perpetuate immunity in response to(More)
Autophagy clears long-lived proteins and dysfunctional organelles and generates substrates for adenosine triphosphate production during periods of starvation and other types of cellular stress. Here we show that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-associated nuclear protein and extracellular damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, is a(More)
The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts [RAGE] is an evolutionarily recent member of the immunoglobulin super-family, encoded in the Class III region of the major histocompatability complex. RAGE is highly expressed only in the lung at readily measurable levels but increases quickly at sites of inflammation, largely on inflammatory and epithelial(More)
Adenoviral vectors were used to deliver genes encoding a soluble interleukin 1 (IL-1)-type I receptor-IgG fusion protein and/or a soluble type I tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) receptor-IgG fusion protein directly to the knees of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. When tested individually, knees receiving the soluble IL-1 receptor had(More)
Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecular pattern molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of exogenous histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic(More)
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a chromatin associated nuclear protein and extracellular damage associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), is an evolutionarily ancient and critical regulator of cell death and survival. Overexpression of HMGB1 is associated with each of the hallmarks of cancer including unlimited replicative potential, ability(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can be actively secreted by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli (such as bacterial endotoxin, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) or passively released by necrotic cells and mediates innate and adaptive inflammatory responses to infection and injury. Here, we demonstrated that a(More)
Growth factors have the potential to enhance native repair responses in ligamentous lesions. However, methods for applying these cytokines to sites of injury for extended periods are lacking. We suggest that local transfer of genes which encode the relevant healing factors merits investigation as a potential solution to this problem. In the present study,(More)