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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
This paper updates the literature on water utility benchmarking studies carried out worldwide, focusing on scale and scope economies. Using meta-regression analysis, the study investigates which variables from published studies influence these economies. Our analysis led to several conclusions. The results indicate that there is a higher probability of(More)
BACKGROUND In HIV-infected patients, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with clinical lipodystrophy (CL) and metabolic abnormalities (MA). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components, and to determine whether patients with or without CL had a different prevalence of MA. METHODS We(More)
This paper reports on our experimentation with the design of a layered software architecture for the support of parallel and distributed execution of Logic Programming Systems, how it ooers a set of concurrency and communication abstractions that are integrated in an extended Prolog, and how this is used to support a high-level group-oriented distributed(More)
Public private partnerships (PPP) are long lasting contracts, generally involving large sunk investments, and developed in contexts of great uncertainty. If uncertainty is taken as an assumption, rather as a threat, it could be used as an opportunity. This requires managerial flexibility. The paper addresses the concept of contract flexibility as well as(More)
This paper analyses regulation by contract in public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure services. Although the benefits of competition for the market and subsequent regulatory contracts are recognised, the literature also identifies contract design failures. When considering these limitations, it is useful to distinguish between contracts(More)