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Salidroside (SA), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has been documented to exert a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties, including protective effects against neuronal death induced by various stresses. To provide further insights into the neuroprotective functions of SA, this study examined whether SA can attenuate cobalt(More)
In a previous study by our group, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) activates the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. There is considerable evidence that the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in autophagy following ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to(More)
The unregulated activation of microglia following stroke results in the production of toxic factors that propagate secondary neuronal injury. Salidroside has been shown to exhibit protective effects against neuronal death induced by different insults. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of salidroside have not(More)
Previously, we reported that millimeter wave promoted the chondrocyte proliferation by pushing cell cycle progression. Activation of K+ channels plays an essential role in the stimulating of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and the cell proliferation in chondrocytes. While it is unclear if millimeter wave enhances ECM synthesis and proliferation of(More)
Millimeter waves, high-frequency electromagnetic waves, can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms in osteoarthritis patients, as a non-pharmaceutical and non-invasive physical therapy regimen. However, the molecular mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of millimeter wave treatment are not well understood. In the present study, the effect of(More)
Ischemic stroke, the second leading cause of death worldwide, leads to excessive glutamate release, over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and massive influx of calcium (Ca2+), which may activate calpain and caspase-3, resulting in cellular damage and death. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDAR antagonist with low-affinity/fast off-rate.(More)
Microglial activation plays an important role in neroinflammation following ischemic stroke. Activated microglial cells can then migrate to the site of injury to proliferate and release substances which induce secondary brain damage. It has been shown that microglial migration is associated with the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to secondary brain damage in ischemic stroke; therefore, anti-inflammatory therapy via suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway could be a promising strategy for the treatment of stroke and post-stroke disabilities. Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) has long(More)
The tidemark is located between calcified and non-calcified cartilage matrices. Tidemark replication plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis (OA). Autophagy, or cellular self-digestion, is an essential cellular homeostasis mechanism that was found to be deficient in osteoarthritic cartilage. This study evaluated the effects of Tougu(More)
The efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation has been proven for various types of malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying effects of millimeter wave radiation on apoptosis are still unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of millimeter wave radiation on cell apoptosis(More)