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This article describes and discusses some commonly used single-case experimental designs, including reversal and non-reversal designs. The A-B-A-B design is recommended for use when reversal designs can be used and when the patient's treatment phase needs to be maintained. The B-A-B design is used in situations when studying an intervention or treatment(More)
The single-case experimental design is an example of idiographic research which involves establishing causality. The reasons for using idiographic research in nursing are discussed and important differences between nomothetic and idiographic designs are highlighted in this article. Single-case experimental designs are recommended in situations where both(More)
This article discusses randomized clinical trials, double blind designs and factorial designs and describes and explains their main requirements. It is shown that the randomized clinical trial is not a different experimental design, but is one that reflects the purpose for and the scale on which the post-test only or pre-test/post-test designs are often(More)
There are many ethical issues in relation to research when dealing with human subjects, e.g. confidentiality, dignity, benefit-to-risk ratio and informed consent. The integrity of researchers is paramount. For nurses, there is potential role conflict between the role of researcher and the role of patient's advocate. Cultural variations in ethical(More)
This article considers the three characteristics of the basic experiment (random assignment of subjects, manipulation of relevant variables and control of irrelevant variables) and describes the two most common experimental designs: the pre-test/post-test design and the post/test only design. The necessity of controlling for subject and situational(More)
The essence of experimental research is to establish causal relationships between variables and this requires internal validity. An experiment is said to have internal validity when extraneous variables have been controlled. However, there are many threats to internal validity. This article considers 13 of them, providing examples which clarify and help to(More)