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BACKGROUND Fingolimod (FTY720), a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes, showed clinical efficacy and improvement on imaging in a phase 2 study involving patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS In this 12-month, double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned 1292 patients with(More)
In patients with primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis, brain MRI lesion activity and burden are low, despite the presence of severe neurological impairment. On the contrary, the degree of cord atrophy and diffuse tissue damage in the brain and cervical cord have been found to be associated with clinical disability. Against this background, this study(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to the more destructive aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) evolution occurring outside and within T2-visible lesions and, as a consequence, holds promise for providing a more complete picture of primary progressive (PP) MS-related tissue damage than conventional magnetic resonance imaging.(More)
OBJECTIVE To find biomarkers identifying patients at risk for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during natalizumab treatment. METHODS Patients were recruited from 10 European and US cohorts. Of 289 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 224 had been treated with natalizumab (18-80 months), 21 received other(More)
In this study, we evaluated the effect of imprecision in patient repositioning encountered in real life on multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion volumes measured from MRIs. We also evaluated two putative methods for reducing the variability in these lesion volume measurements: first, a reduction of slice thickness (from the conventional 5 mm to 3 mm) and second,(More)
Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess MRI and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging changes in the brain and cervical cord from patients with Devic's neuromyelitis optica (DNO), and to compare them with those from patients with MS. BACKGROUND In MS, MT imaging detects changes within the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT). MS lesions in the cord usually are isointense on(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate brain changes after cognitive rehabilitation in patients with clinically stable relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) by using neuropsychologic assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted with approval of the involved institutional review(More)
We compared the global and regional distribution of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage and T2-visible lesion between patients with benign (B) and relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS). BMS and RRMS patients did not differ in terms of global volumes and diffusion tensor (DT) MRI metrics of the WM and GM. Compared to controls, BMS and(More)