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Vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) was used to investigate the conformational changes in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of (1-mercaptoundec-11-yl) hexa(ethylene glycol) monomethylether (EG6-OMe) on gold when exposed to liquid water. VSFG spectra of the EG6-OMe SAMs were recorded before, during, and after exposure of the films to water and after a(More)
Special protection system (SPS) can ensure power grids to operate in a satisfactory state following a contingency or major disturbances. By installing phasor measurement units (PMUs), the stability indices can be computed and applied to the decision system of a response-based SPS for recognizing the pattern of system instability. In this paper, the integral(More)
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