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How instructive cues present on the cell surface have their precise effects on the actin cytoskeleton is poorly understood. Semaphorins are one of the largest families of these instructive cues and are widely studied for their effects on cell movement, navigation, angiogenesis, immunology and cancer. Semaphorins/collapsins were characterized in part on the(More)
Multiple extracellular signals have been identified that regulate actin dynamics within motile cells, but how these instructive cues present on the cell surface exert their precise effects on the internal actin cytoskeleton is still poorly understood. One particularly interesting class of these cues is a group of extracellular proteins that negatively alter(More)
Actin's polymerization properties are markedly altered by oxidation of its conserved Met 44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met 44. We now find that this actin-regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive phospholipid, simultaneously induces actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and activation of matriptase, a membrane-associated serine protease in human mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we used a monoclonal antibody selective for activated, two-chain matriptase to examine the functional relationship between(More)
Actin's polymerization properties are dramatically altered by oxidation of its conserved methionine (Met)-44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (Redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met-44. We now find that this actin regulatory process is reversible. Employing a(More)
Numerous cellular functions depend on actin filament (F-actin) disassembly. The best-characterized disassembly proteins, the ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilins (encoded by the twinstar gene in Drosophila), sever filaments and recycle monomers to promote actin assembly. Cofilin is also a relatively weak actin disassembler, posing questions about(More)
We have recently identified a new family of multidomain oxidoreductase (redox) enzymes, the MICALs, that directly regulate the actin cytoskeletal elements necessary for the morphology, motility, and trajectory of cells. Our genetic assays reveal that Mical is both necessary and sufficient for actin organization and cellular effects in vivo and our(More)
The MICALs are a family of phylogenetically conserved cytoplasmic proteins that modulate numerous cellular behaviors and play critical roles in semaphorin-plexin signaling. Our recent results have revealed that the MICALs are an unusual family of actin regulatory proteins that use actin filaments (F-actin) as a direct substrate-controlling F-actin dynamics(More)
Proper regulation of osmotic balance and response to tissue damage is crucial in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis. We found that Drosophila miR-263a downregulates the expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in enterocytes (ECs) to maintain osmotic and ISC homeostasis. In the absence of miR-263a, the intraluminal surface of(More)
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