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During vertebrate development, naturally occurring neuronal cell death is regulated by target-derived peptide factors, called neurotrophins. A recent series of papers describe the phenotypes of germline-targeted mutant mice deficient in neurotrophins and their receptors. Histological analysis of these mice for the first time has provided knowledge about the(More)
Recent studies have revealed that Ca 2+ signals evoked by action potentials or by synaptic activity within individual dendritic spines are regulated at multiple levels. Ca 2+ influx through glutamate receptors and voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels located on spines depends on the channel subunit composition, the activity of kinases and phosphatases, the(More)
Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo) is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic(More)
Ephrin receptors interact with membrane-bound ephrin ligands to regulate contact-mediated attraction or repulsion between opposing cells, thereby influencing tissue morphogenesis. Cell repulsion requires bidirectional trans-endocytosis of clustered Eph-ephrin complexes at cell interfaces, but the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood.(More)
Proper guidance and wiring of axons during development is essential for the normal function of the nervous system. Despite the identification, over the last 20 years or so, of many axon guidance cues and their cognate receptors, we still do not fully understand how their intracellu-lar signal transduction is elicited. Current models often depict that ligand(More)
Glutamate mediates most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system by activating ionotropic glutamate receptors. Structural and functional studies of ionotropic glutamate receptors have offered detailed insight into the mechanism by which these integral membrane proteins function. In particular, advances in our understanding(More)