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BACKGROUND Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish the relation between socioeconomic status and the age-sex specific prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis was that prevalence of type 2 diabetes would be inversely related to socioeconomic status but there would be no association with the prevalence of type 1 diabetes and socioeconomic status. SETTING(More)
BACKGROUND Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. METHODS Two randomised,(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of visual loss in people of working age. We examined whether candesartan treatment could slow the progression and, secondly, induce regression of retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in 309 centres worldwide.(More)
OBJECTIVE Women with preexisting (type 1 or type 2) diabetes experience an increased risk of serious adverse pregnancy outcomes. It is not known, however, how these risks change between the first and second pregnancy and whether there is an increased risk of recurrence. This study describes the absolute risks and recurrence of serious adverse pregnancy(More)
OBJECTIVE Podocyte-specific, doxycycline (DOX)-inducible overexpression of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 (sFlt-1) in adult mice was used to investigate the role of the VEGF-A/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) system in diabetic glomerulopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied nondiabetic and diabetic transgenic mice and wild-type(More)
Pancreas transplantation prevents or retards development of early diabetic glomerular lesions in renal allografts transplanted to patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but its effect on established renal lesions in native kidneys of such patients is unknown. Renal biopsy samples were taken before and 5 years after pancreas(More)
Human insulin synthesised by recombinant DNA technology was compared with highly purified porcine insulin in healthy men. Intracutaneous injection over a wide range of concentrations of both insulins into five subjects gave rise to no local reactions over a 48 h period. The glycaemic response to standard subcutaneous injection at high and low dose levels(More)
The most dramatic development in medical decision-making technology has been the advent of the Internet. This has had an impact not only on clinicians, but has also become an important resource for patients who often approach their doctors with medical information they have obtained from the Internet.  Increasingly, medical students, residents and attending(More)