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The Omni-Directional Treadmill (ODT) is a revolutionary device for locomotion in large-scale virtual environments. The device allows its user to walk or jog in any direction of travel. It is the third generation in a series of devices built for this purpose for the U.S. Army's Dismounted Infantry Training Program. We first describe the device in terms of(More)
INTRODUCTION As important as navigation is to human performance in virtual worlds, support for effective navigation is often overlooked in the design process. This document reports an experiment intended to show that real-world wayfinding and environmental design principles are effective in designing virtual worlds which support skilled wayfinding behavior.(More)
Maintaining knowledge of current position and orient-ationis frequently a problem for people in virtual environments. In this paper we present a toolset of techniques based on principles of navigation derived from real world analogs, We include a discussion of human and avian navigation behaviors and show how knowledge about them were used to design our(More)
The spatial nature of large-scale virtual worlds introduces wayfinding problems which are often overlooked in the design process. In order to design and build useful virtual worlds in which real work can take place, these issues must be addressed. The research described here is a study of human wayfinding in virtual worlds and how real world solutions can(More)
The experiment we present studies the use of VEs for terrain familiarization in natural environments. Natural environments are fundamentally different in that the environment has not been " designed " to assist navigation. While some paths may be clearly evident, movement is not restricted to follow them. It is a relatively free movement environment that(More)